Find topics of interest and explore encyclopedia content related to those topics
Find articles, photos, maps, films, and more listed alphabetically
Recommended resources and topics if you have limited time to teach about the Holocaust
Explore the ID Cards to learn more about personal experiences during the Holocaust
Italian Fascist leader Benito Mussolini (center) with aides and supporters. They are wearing the attire which gave them the name of blackshirts. Italy, 1920s.
A building in Rome, Italy, used as Gestapo (secret state police) headquarters during the German occupation. This photograph was taken after US forces liberated the city. Rome, Italy, June 1944.
Rita Rosani, a former school teacher who joined the Italian armed resistance immediately upon the German occupation of Italy. She was killed near Verona on September 17, 1944, when her unit was surrounded. Trieste, Italy, 1940.
False identity card of Jewish partisan Vittorio Finzi, issued in the name of Vittorio Rossi. Italy, wartime.
An Italian Jew who survived the war by disguising himself as a priest and living in the Vatican from October 1943 to June 1944. A number of Jews were able to seek refuge in religious houses throughout Rome, including in the Vatican. Rome, Italy, 1943-1944.
Class photograph of students at the San Leone Magno Fratelli Maristi boarding school in Rome. Pictured in the top row at the far right is Zigmund Krauthamer, a Jewish child who was being hidden at the school. Rome, Italy, 1943–44.
Jewish women and children from Yugoslavia arrive at the camp on Rab island. The Italians concentrated Jews on Rab, which protected them from the Germans. Rab, Yugoslavia, summer 1943.
Jewish inmates in their barracks at the Italian concentration camp Ferramonti di Tarsia. Italy, between 1940 and 1943.
During a visit to Germany, Italian dictator Benito Mussolini (back to camera) speaks with (left to right): SS chief Heinrich Himmler; Nazi propaganda minister Joseph Goebbels; and Nazi governor of Poland Hans Frank. Germany, 1941.
Axis leaders Adolf Hitler and Italian prime minister Benito Mussolini meet in Munich, Germany, 1940.
A gathering of Jewish youth from Rhodes. Rhodes, photograph taken between 1940 and 1944.
Benito Mussolini and Adolf Hitler stand together on an reviewing stand during a official visit to occupied Yugoslavia, 1941–43.
Thousands gather at the Roman Forum to listen to a speech by Italian Fascist leader Benito Mussolini. Rome, Italy, April 12, 1934.
Jewish youth at the "HaRishona" (The First) Zionist training center construct a fishing boat. They are preparing for emigration to Palestine. Fano, Italy, 1946.
We would like to thank The Crown and Goodman Family and the Abe and Ida Cooper Foundation for supporting the ongoing
work to create content and resources for the Holocaust Encyclopedia.
View the list of all donors.