The Dachau concentration camp, northwest of Munich, Germany, was the first regular concentration camp the Nazis established in 1933. About twelve years later, on April 29, 1945, US armed forces liberated the camp. There were some 30,000 starving prisoners in the camp at that time. In this footage, soldiers of the US Seventh Army feed and disinfect survivors of the camp.
In Nazi usage, "euthanasia" referred to the killing of those whom the Nazis deemed "unworthy of life." In 1941 the Hadamar psychiatric clinic served as one of the euthanasia killing centers in Germany. Patients selected by German doctors for euthanasia were transferred to Hadamar or one of the other facilities and were killed in gas chambers. Over 10,000 people were gassed at Hadamar before the Euthanasia Program officially ended in August 1941. Although the program had officially ended, killings continued at Hadamar by means of lethal injections. After the war, US personnel filmed the facility and cared for surviving patients.
The Ustase were pro-German Croatian fascists. After the Axis invasion and partition of Yugoslavia in April 1941, the Germans established a dependent Croatian state. Led by Ante Pavelic, the Croatian regime began a genocidal campaign against minority groups and killed hundreds of thousands of Serbs and tens of thousands of Jews in Croatia. This possibly staged Ustase footage shows Ustase paramilitary forces rounding up villagers in rural Croatia. In May 1945, Yugoslav partisans under Marshal Tito--with Soviet support--overturned the Croatian regime.
The Medical Case was one of twelve war crimes trials held before an American tribunal as part of the Subsequent Nuremberg Proceedings. The trial dealt with doctors and nurses who had participated in the killing of physically and mentally impaired Germans and who had performed medical experiments on people imprisoned in concentration camps. Sixteen of the defendants were found guilty. Of the sixteen, seven were sentenced to death for planning and carrying out experiments on human beings against their will. Here, the court announces sentences for defendants Wilhelm Beigleboeck, Herta Oberhauser, and Fritz Fischer.
The Medical Case was one of 12 war crimes trials held before an American tribunal as part of the Subsequent Nuremberg Proceedings. On trial were doctors and nurses who had participated in the killing of physically and mentally impaired Germans and who had performed medical experiments on people imprisoned in concentration camps. Here, concentration camp survivors Maria Kusmierczuk and Jadwiga Dzido, who had been victims of these experiments, show their injuries to the court as evidence.
Germany's formal surrender on May 7 and VE-Day (Victory in Europe Day) on May 8, 1945, were marked by joyous celebrations all over Europe. This footage shows streets in Paris and London filled with people celebrating the unconditional Allied victory over Nazi Germany and the winning of the war in Europe.
In Norway in the 1930s, Vidkun Quisling founded a pro-Nazi party called the Fascist National Union Party. When Germany invaded Norway in 1940, Quisling attempted a pro-German coup against the government. He headed a pro-German administration from 1942 to 1945. His betrayal of Norway to Germany has made his name into a label for all collaborators and traitors. After World War II, Norwegian authorities arrested Quisling, and tried and convicted him on charges of treason. He received a death sentence.
At the end of World War II, more than three-quarters of the city of Nuremberg, Germany, lay in rubble. This US Army Air Corps color footage shows some of the war damage in Nuremberg, which had been host in the 1920s and 1930s to massive and lavish rallies for the Nazi party.
On August 1, 1944, the Armia Krajowa (Polish Home Army) launched an uprising in Warsaw against the German occupiers. Although the Western allies dropped ammunition and supplies and the Soviet army was within sight of the city, the uprising was crushed. This German newsreel footage shows the German suppression of the uprising.
Outdoor scene of Jewish weavers.
Huge crowds of well wishers gather in the streets on the occasion of the wedding of the Munkács rabbi's 18-year-old daughter, Frime Chaye Rivke. The Grand Rabbi of Munkács (Mukacevo), Chaim Elazar Shapiro, father of the bride, makes a speech in Yiddish exhorting Jews in America to continue to keep Shabbes (to observe the sabbath day). The wedding party then enters the synagogue grounds, and the cantor sings blessings beneath the wedding canopy. The wedding concludes with festive klezmer music. The marriage had been arranged six years earlier, though the bride and groom did not meet until their wedding day. Newspaper accounts indicate that some 20,000 people attended the celebrations.
At his hidden headquarters in the mountains of Yugoslavia, Marshal Tito (Josip Broz), head of the Yugoslav Communist partisan movement, prepares his forces for battle. Women gather silk parachutes, used to drop supplies by Allied forces, for use as bandages. Partisans train, preparing to fight the Germans. At the height of the partisan war in Yugoslavia in 1943, Tito's partisans engaged some 35 Axis divisions, which otherwise might have been in service on the Italian or eastern fronts.
Large group of schoolchildren sing Hatikvah, the Zionist anthem.
Zionist youth sing while dancing the hora, a folk dance.
After World War II, the Allies repatriated millions of displaced persons (DPs) to their countries of origin. But hundreds of thousands of people, including more than 250,000 Jewish refugees, could not or would not return. Most Jewish DPs preferred to leave Europe for either Palestine or the United States. The Allies housed them in camps in occupied Germany until they could be resettled. Here, Jewish Zionists protest their continued confinement in Zeilsheim displaced persons camp in Germany. They demand that they be permitted to emigrate to Palestine.
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