This photograph, taken by Dorothea Lange, shows Florence Owens Thompson and her children in February or March of 1936 in Nipomo, California. Lange recounted later, "...There she sat in that lean-to tent with her children huddled around her, and seemed to know that my pictures might help her, and so she helped me. There was a sort of equality about it."
A replica of "Refugee" bear and a photo of a Darfurian child refugee, items taken by Commander Mark Polansky (pictured) on a December 2006 Space Shuttle mission.
A group of Polish Jewish children (known as the "Tehran Children"), who arrived in Palestine via Iran, at the Mikveh Israel agricultural village. Palestine, February or March 1943.
Photograph of "The Three Musketeers" —three school friends in the Lodz ghetto. Left: Lola Tenenbaum Rapoport, who survived with her husband. Center: Niusia Friedman, who was killed in Auschwitz. Lola sent this photo to Blanka Rothschild from Australia. Blanka (right) says "It's my only memento of the ghetto."
With the end of World War II and collapse of the Nazi regime, survivors of the Holocaust faced the daunting task of rebuilding their lives. With little in the way of financial resources and few, if any, surviving family members, most eventually emigrated from Europe to start their lives again. Between 1945 and 1952, more than 80,000 Holocaust survivors immigrated to the United States. Blanka was one of them.
The "You Are My Witnesses" wall in the Hall of Witness at the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum. Washington, DC, January 2003.
Panel from the exhibition A Dangerous Lie: The Protocols of the Elders of Zion which was on display at the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum from 2006–18. The exhibition explored the continuing impact of the most widely distributed antisemitic publication of modern times.
United Nations personnel vaccinate an 11-year-old concentration camp survivor who was a victim of medical experiments at the Auschwitz camp. Photograph taken in the Bergen-Belsen displaced persons camp, Germany, May 1946.
Detail of the 14th Street facade of the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum. Washington, DC, April 2003.
A 1915 portrait of Willem Arondeus. During World War II, Arondeus, a gay member of the Dutch resistance, participated in an attack on the Amsterdam Population Registry offices. His group set fire to several thousand files in an attempt to destroy government records of Jews and others sought by the Nazis. Soon after the attack, his unit was betrayed. The Nazis arrested and executed Arondeus in 1943. Blaricum, the Netherlands, 1915.
Abraham and his family fled from Berlin to Amsterdam in October 1938. They found refuge in the Netherlands until January 28, 1943, when all the members of the Muhlbaum family, except Abraham, were deported to Westerbork. Abraham escaped over the rooftops during the round-up. He gradually established a new life as a member of a Dutch resistance group that included Joop Westerweel.
In 1944, Abraham was arrested as a member of the resistance (his Jewish identity remained hidden). He was held in several prisons and transit camps before being deported to Neuengamme on May 24, 1944. As a "Night and Fog" prisoner, he was entirely cut off from the outside world. No one knew his whereabouts, or even if he was alive. After three weeks at Neuengamme, he was transferred to the Natzweiler concentration camp near Strasbourg, and from there, to Dachau, in September 1944.
Following the liberation of Dachau on April 29, 1945, Abraham returned to the Netherlands, where he remained until immigrating to the United States in the 1950s.
Nazi propaganda constantly reinforced the notion that Hitler was the embodiment of the national will. Here, a determined looking Hitler in military dress stands with clenched fist, poised for action above the adoring crowd. The text on the poster says "Yes! Leader, We Follow You!" (Ja! Führer wir folgen Dir!)
This poster, designed for a 1934 public referendum on uniting the posts of German chancellor and president, conveys unanimous popular support for Hitler.
1936 poster: "All of Germany Listens to the Führer with the People's Radio." The poster depicts a crowd surrounding a radio. The radio looms large, symbolizing the mass appeal and broad audience for Nazi broadcasts. Bundesarchiv Koblenz (Plak003-022-025)
Prewar studio portrait in Sighet of Jewish siblings Suri and Ari Deutsch, both of whom died in the Holocaust. This photograph comes from the album of their cousin, Rosalia Dratler Roiter. Rosalia was deported to and died at Auschwitz. Sighet, Romania, 1937.
1943 portrait of Edgar Krasa drawn by Leo Haas in Theresienstadt. Haas (1901-1983) was a Czech Jewish artist who, while imprisoned in Nisko and Theresienstadt during World War II, painted portraits and produced a large volume of drawings documenting the daily life of the prisoners.
1943 still life of a violin and sheet of music behind prison bars by Bedrich Fritta (1909–1945). Fritta was a Czech Jewish artist who created drawings and paintings depicting conditions in the Theresienstadt camp-ghetto. He was deported to Auschwitz in October 1944; he died there a week after his arrival.
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