Kovno had a rich and varied Jewish culture. Learn about the Soviet and German occupations of Kovno, ghettoization, secret archives, and resistance in Kovno during WWII and the Holocaust.
Under the Vichy regime, the Les Milles camp held foreign Jews before emigration or, in most cases, deportation to German concentration camps and killing centers.
The Berlin-Marzahn camp was established a few miles from Berlin's city center, for the detention of Roma, on the eve of the 1936 summer Olympics.
Gleichschaltung is the German term applied to the Nazification of all aspects of German society following the Nazi rise to power in 1933.
The Burmese military has targeted the Rohingya people because of their ethnic and religious identity. The military’s actions constitute genocide and crimes against humanity. Learn more
Read an excerpt from Izak Lichtenstein’s 1947 testimony about the resistance movement in the Lachva (Lachwa) ghetto.
The program cover for "We Will Never Die" featured Arthur Szyk’s "Tears of Rage" artwork. The cover's original dimensions are: 12 1/16" x 9 1/16" x 3/16.
A second RCA Radiogram telegram from Rabbi Grodzenski, Chief Rabbi of Vilna, to the Central Relief Committee in New York. He requests aid for refugees who have gathered in Vilna. The telegram says that more than 1,600 yeshiva students and their families from over 10 cities throughout Poland have fled to Vilna, where they remain in terrible living conditions. November 5, 1939. [From the USHMM special exhibition Flight and Rescue.]
(Bottom) View of fortifications built at Kalimovka to defend the advancing troops of the 4th Infantry Division of the Hungarian 2nd Army. In the lower right corner of the drawing, men prepare the grave of Jewish Labor Serviceman Nandor Klein, the first fatality of the company. The Hungarian caption reads: The death of our first hero, Nandor Klein, his grave, June 5, 1942." Klein was killed by a stray Soviet bullet on his way back to base. [Photograph #58013]
Aron in Budapest, 1945, while en route from Poland to Italy with Brihah, moving to Palestine. In Aron's words: "We got connected with the Brihah in Poland, got directions to go to Bratislava and on to Budapest. On our trip, we didn't know where we going from city to city, only our final destination." July 5, 1945, Budapest, Hungary.
Recently appointed as German chancellor, Adolf Hitler greets President Paul von Hindenburg in Potsdam, Germany, on March 21, 1933. This pose was designed to project an image of Hitler as non-threatening to the established order. This particular image is from a popular postcard. The photo also appeared widely in both the German and international press. Hitler appears in civilian dress, bowing in deference to the heavily decorated von Hindenburg. The March 5, 1933, elections had conferred legitimacy on…
Two young brothers, seated for a family photograph in the Kovno ghetto. One month later, they were deported to the Majdanek camp. Kovno, Lithuania, February 1944. Pictured are Avram (5 years) and Emanuel Rosenthal (2 years). Emanuel was born in the Kovno ghetto. The children, who were deported in the March 1944 "Children's Action," did not survive. Their uncle, Shraga Wainer, who had asked George Kadish to take this photograph, received a copy of it from the photographer after the war in the Landsberg…
Before WWII, over 3,500 Jews lived in Luxembourg. Under the German occupation, this community was almost completely destroyed. Learn more.
Between 1940 and 1944, Latvia was occupied by the Soviets and then by the Germans. These occupations had grave consequences for Jews in Latvia. Learn more.
The 65th Infantry Division participated in major WWII campaigns and is recognized for liberating a subcamp of Flossenbürg in 1945.
In 1933, the Nazis established the Hainichen labor camp in Sachsen, Germany. Learn more about the camp, its closing, and the prisoners.
After WWII, many Holocaust survivors, unable to return to their homes, lived in displaced persons camps in Germany, Austria, and Italy. Read about Bad Gastein DP camp.
Learn more about the 1943 Tunisia campaign, a four-month long struggle between Allied and Axis powers in North Africa during World War II.
Explore a timeline of key events in Nazi Germany during 1935.
In March 1942, the Hodonin camp was classified as a camp for Roma. It was a transfer station during deportation to Auschwitz-Birkenau. Learn about the camp and its history.
Learn about the establishment of and conditions in Melk, a subcamp of the Mauthausen camp system in Austria.
Explore a timeline of key events during 1939 in the history of Nazi Germany, World War II, and the Holocaust.
The Nuremberg Special Court ruled on the Katzenberger Race Defilement Case in 1942. Learn more about the outcome and impact of the case.
During the Holocaust, some children went into hiding to escape Nazi persecution. They faced constant fear, dilemmas, and danger.
Explore a timeline of key events during 1941 in the history of Nazi Germany, World War II, and the Holocaust.
We would like to thank Crown Family Philanthropies and the Abe and Ida Cooper Foundation for supporting the ongoing work to create content and resources for the Holocaust Encyclopedia. View the list of all donors.