Learn about trends that developed during and immediately after WWI that brought antisemitism, including its racist variant, into the mainstream of European politics.
Learn about the Jewish community of Munkacs from the eighteenth century through the aftermath of World War I.
Explore a timeline of key events in the history of World War I and its aftermath. Learn about the conflict and its divisive peace.
The trauma of WWI would profoundly shape the attitudes and actions of leaders and ordinary people during the Holocaust. Learn more about the aftermath of the conflict.
Mass atrocities and genocide are often perpetrated within the context of war. Learn more about World War I and the Armenian genocide.
Learn about the provisions and impact of the 1919 Treaty of Versailles, including the "War Guilt Clause" which held Germany responsible for starting World War I.
Learn about Adolf Hitler's experiences during World War I and his ideological development after the war.
After the devastation of WWI, the victorious western powers imposed a series of treaties upon the defeated nations. Learn about the treaties and their impact.
The experiences of World War I and its aftermath would profoundly shape the attitudes and actions of leaders and ordinary people during the Holocaust.
Henri Barbusse was a French author who wrote pacifist and socialist works. In 1933, his writings were burned under the Nazi regime. Learn more.
This 1919 photograph shows World War I destruction in Ypres, Belgium.
The 89th Infantry Division participated in major WWII campaigns and is recognized for liberating the Ohrdruf subcamp of Buchenwald in 1945.
A crowd in front of the Berlin Cathedral (Berliner Dom) cheers the declaration of World War I. Berlin, Germany, August 1914. Many enthusiastically believed that World War I would be over quickly. Instead, the war became a stalemate of costly battles and trench warfare. It lasted for years and was the first great international conflict of the twentieth century. The impact of the conflict and its divisive peace would reverberate in the decades following.
Refugees in the Gare de Lyon in Paris during World War I. Paris, France, photograph taken ca. 1914–15.
Belgian refugees in Paris during World War I, the first great international conflict of the twentieth century. Paris, France, 1914.
Ruins of the library in Louvain, destroyed during World War I. Louvain, Belgium, ca. 1914–1915
A French army ambulance during World War I. This photograph was taken ca. 1914–1915.
German soldiers in the Argonne Forest, France, during World War I. Photograph taken ca. 1914–1915.
A US army field hospital inside the ruins of a church in France during World War I. France, 1918
Surrounded by destruction, US soldiers of the 23rd Infantry fire a gun during World War I, 1918.
One of the oldest cities in Poland, Kalisz played a pivotal role in Polish Jewish history. Learn about the Jewish Community in Kalisz from the 12th Century to WWI.
In the 1930s, Prime Minister Neville Chamberlain and the British government pursued a policy of appeasement towards Nazi Germany to avoid war. Learn more.
A man, women and a child sort through the rubble of a Polish home destroyed during World War I. Photograph taken ca. October 18, 1915.
Scene of trench warfare: an abandoned British trench which was captured by German forces during World War I. German soldiers on horseback view the scene.
This 1919 photograph shows destruction in the leading business thoroughfare of Rheims after bombardment during World War I. Rheims, France, 1919.
Scene of destruction during World War I: panoramic view of the battlefield at Guillemont, September 1916, during the Battle of the Somme. © IWM (Q 1281)
Field Marshal Wilhelm Keitel was commander of all German armed forces during World War II. Learn about his military career and postwar trial.
British troops at the site of a former German trench following the withdrawal of German troops to the Hindenburg line on the western front in World War I. This photograph shows a trench bridge over a German trench. Gommecourt, France, 1917.
The armistice that ended the hostilities of World War I was signed in a railcar in the Forest of Compiègne. The railcar belonged to French Marshal Ferdinand Foch, the commander of the victorious Allied forces. © IWM Q 61172
Pictured from left to right: Field Marshal Paul von Hindenburg, Kaiser Wilhelm II, and General Erich Ludendorff study maps during World War I. January 1917.
November 11, 1918. On this date, a negotiated ceasefire ends the fighting of World War I when it goes into effect at 11am.
The 86th Infantry Division participated in major WWII campaigns and is recognized for liberating Attendorn, a civilian forced-labor camp, in 1945.
The trauma of WWI would profoundly shape the attitudes and actions of both leaders and ordinary people during the Holocaust. Learn more about the war and its aftermath.
Erich Maria Remarque wrote the classic novel “All Quiet on the Western Front,” which became a Hollywood film. His works were burned under the Nazi regime in 1933.
The 29th Infantry Division participated in major WWII campaigns and is recognized for liberating Dinslaken, a civilian labor camp, in 1945.
Houses along the River Meuse damaged during the Battle of Verdun, December 1916. The battle was one of the longest and deadliest of World War I. © IWM (Q 67594)
Hitler rose to power during a time of economic and political instability in Germany. Learn more about how and when Hitler came to power.
The 4th Infantry Division participated in major WWII campaigns and is recognized for liberating the Haunstetten subcamp of Dachau.
Trench warfare is one of the iconic symbols of World War I. This photograph shows British troops carrying boards over a support line trench at night during fighting on the western front. Cambrai, France, January 12, 1917.
Learn about the origins and legacy of Pastor Martin Niemöller's famous postwar words, “First they came for the socialists, and I did not speak out…”
Georg Grosz was a German artist of the Dada movement. His books, which had many of his best-known plates, were burned in Nazi Germany in 1933. Learn more.
The 90th Infantry Division participated in major WWII campaigns and is recognized for liberating the Flossenbürg concentration camp in 1945.
German General Erich Ludendorff was a key proponent of the fictitious “Stab-in-the-Back” myth which blamed Jews and others for Germany’s defeat in WWI.
Adolf Hitler (front row, far left) served on the western front in World War I and during the course of the war was twice decorated for service, wounded, and temporarily blinded in a mustard gas attack. He used his veteran status in later election campaigns.
The 1st Infantry Division participated in major WWII campaigns and is recognized for liberating two subcamps of Flossenbürg in 1945.
The concept of Lebensraum, “living space,” was as a critical component in the Nazi worldview that drove both its military conquests and racial policy.
The 2nd Infantry Division participated in major WWII campaigns and is recognized for liberating Leipzig-Schönefeld and Spergau/Zöschen in 1945.
President Barack Obama visited Buchenwald concentration camp in Germany on June 5, 2009. In a speech at the site, he repudiated Holocaust denial. Browse transcript.
After WWII and the fall of the Nazi regime, Holocaust survivors faced the daunting task of rebuilding their lives. Listen to six survivors tell their stories.
Hitler was determined to overturn the military and territorial provisions of the Versailles treaty, among it was much resented loss of the city of Danzig after WWI.
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