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Learn about trends that developed during and immediately after WWI that brought antisemitism, including its racist variant, into the mainstream of European politics.
Learn about the Jewish community of Munkacs from the eighteenth century through the aftermath of World War I.
Explore a timeline of key events in the history of World War I and its aftermath. Learn about the conflict and its divisive peace.
Learn about the provisions and impact of the 1919 Treaty of Versailles, including the "War Guilt Clause" which held Germany responsible for starting World War I.
The trauma of WWI would profoundly shape the attitudes and actions of leaders and ordinary people during the Holocaust. Learn more about the aftermath of the conflict.
Mass atrocities and genocide are often perpetrated within the context of war. The Armenian genocide was closely linked to World War I in the Near East and the Russian Caucasus. Ottoman Turkey fought on the side of the Central Powers (Germany and Austria-Hungary) and against the Entente Powers (Great Britain, France, Russia, and Serbia). World War I offered the Young Turk dictatorship (Committee on Union and Progress; CUP) an opportunity to realize its nationalist aims. Already inclined toward Germany due…
The experiences of World War I and its aftermath would profoundly shape the attitudes and actions of leaders and ordinary people during the Holocaust.
Learn about Adolf Hitler's experiences during World War I and his ideological development after the war.
After the devastation of WWI, the victorious western powers imposed a series of treaties upon the defeated nations. Learn about the treaties and their impact.
Henri Barbusse was a French author who wrote pacifist and socialist works. In 1933, his writings were burned under the Nazi regime. Learn more.
Neville Chamberlain was prime minister of the United Kingdom from 1937 to 1940. He is best kno...
This 1919 photograph shows World War I destruction in Ypres, Belgium.
The 89th Infantry Division participated in major WWII campaigns and is recognized for liberating the Ohrdruf subcamp of Buchenwald in 1945.
A crowd in front of the Berlin Cathedral (Berliner Dom) cheers the declaration of World War I. Berlin, Germany, August 1914. Many enthusiastically believed that World War I would be over quickly. Instead, the war became a stalemate of costly battles and trench warfare. It lasted for years and was the first great international conflict of the twentieth century. The impact of the conflict and its divisive peace would reverberate in the decades following.
One of the oldest cities in Poland, Kalisz played a pivotal role in Polish Jewish history. Learn about the Jewish Community in Kalisz from the 12th Century to WWI.
Refugees in the Gare de Lyon in Paris during World War I. Paris, France, photograph taken ca. 1914–15.
Belgian refugees in Paris during World War I, the first great international conflict of the twentieth century. Paris, France, 1914.
Ruins of the library in Louvain, destroyed during World War I. Louvain, Belgium, ca. 1914–1915
A French army ambulance during World War I. This photograph was taken ca. 1914–1915.
German soldiers in the Argonne Forest, France, during World War I. Photograph taken ca. 1914–1915.
A US army field hospital inside the ruins of a church in France during World War I. France, 1918
Surrounded by destruction, US soldiers of the 23rd Infantry fire a gun during World War I, 1918.
A man, women and a child sort through the rubble of a Polish home destroyed during World War I. Photograph taken ca. October 18, 1915.
Scene of trench warfare: an abandoned British trench which was captured by German forces during World War I. German soldiers on horseback view the scene.
This 1919 photograph shows destruction in the leading business thoroughfare of Rheims after bombardment during World War I. Rheims, France, 1919.
Scene of destruction during World War I: panoramic view of the battlefield at Guillemont, September 1916, during the Battle of the Somme. © IWM (Q 1281)
Houses along the River Meuse damaged during the Battle of Verdun, December 1916. The battle was one of the longest and deadliest of World War I. © IWM (Q 67594)
Field Marshal Wilhelm Keitel served as commander of all German armed forces during World War I...
British troops at the site of a former German trench following the withdrawal of German troops to the Hindenburg line on the western front in World War I. This photograph shows a trench bridge over a German trench. Gommecourt, France, 1917.
Hitler was determined to overturn the military and territorial provisions of the Versailles treaty, among the much resented loss of the city of Danzig after WWI.
The 86th Infantry Division participated in major WWII campaigns and is recognized for liberating Attendorn, a civilian forced-labor camp, in 1945.
The trauma of WWI would profoundly shape the attitudes and actions of both leaders and ordinary people during the Holocaust. Learn more about the war and its aftermath.
Erich Maria Remarque wrote the classic novel “All Quiet on the Western Front,” which became a Hollywood film. His works were burned under the Nazi regime in 1933.
Hitler rose to power during a time of economic and political instability in Germany. Learn more about how and when Hitler came to power.
Trench warfare is one of the iconic symbols of World War I. This photograph shows British troops carrying boards over a support line trench at night during fighting on the western front. Cambrai, France, January 12, 1917.
Adolf Hitler (front row, far left) served on the western front in World War I and during the course of the war was twice decorated for service, wounded, and temporarily blinded in a mustard gas attack. He used his veteran status in later election campaigns.
The 1st Infantry Division participated in major WWII campaigns and is recognized for liberating two subcamps of Flossenbürg in 1945.
The concept of Lebensraum, “living space,” was as a critical component in the Nazi worldview that drove both its military conquests and racial policy.
The 29th Infantry Division participated in major WWII campaigns and is recognized for liberating Dinslaken, a civilian labor camp, in 1945.
The 4th Infantry Division participated in major WWII campaigns and is recognized for liberating the Haunstetten subcamp of Dachau.
President Barack Obama visited Buchenwald concentration camp in Germany on June 5, 2009. In a speech at the site, he repudiated Holocaust denial. Browse transcript.
Elie Wiesel was a human rights activist, author, and teacher who reflected on his experience during the Holocaust in more than 40 books. Learn more.
The 26th Infantry Division participated in major WWII campaigns and is recognized for liberating the Gusen subcamp of Mauthausen in 1945.
The Nazis used propaganda to to facilitate persecution, war, and ultimately genocide. Read more about the cult of the leader around Adolf Hitler.
The 36th Infantry Division participated in major WWII campaigns and is recognized for liberating some of the Kaufering subcamps of Dachau in 1945.
German General Erich Ludendorff was a key proponent of the fictitious “Stab-in-the-Back” myth which blamed Jews and others for Germany’s defeat in WWI.
Learn about the origins and legacy of Pastor Martin Niemöller's famous postwar words, “First they came for the socialists, and I did not speak out…”
Learn about the Jewish community of Munkacs, famous for its Hasidic activity as well as its innovations in Zionism and modern Jewish education.
Georg Grosz was a German artist of the Dada movement. His books, which had many of his best-known plates, were burned in Nazi Germany in 1933. Learn more.
Learn about causes, scope, and impacts of the Great Depression, including how it played a role in Adolf Hitler's emergence as a viable political leader in Germany.
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