Oral History

Miso (Michael) Vogel describes the crematoria at Auschwitz-Birkenau

In 1939, Slovak fascists took over Topol'cany, where Miso lived. In 1942, Miso was deported to the Slovak-run Novaky camp and then to Auschwitz. At Auschwitz, he was tattooed with the number 65,316, indicating that 65,315 prisoners preceded him in that series of numbering. He was forced to labor in the Buna works and then in the Birkenau "Kanada" detachment, unloading incoming trains. In late 1944, prisoners were transferred to camps in Germany. Miso escaped during a death march from Landsberg and was liberated by US forces.


But the camp itself, this was really and truly the death factory. Birkenau had four crematorias, two gas chambers, two, two crematorias on one side of the road, two gas chambers, two crematorias on the other side of the road. And the railroad tracks went right into, close to the crematoria. And the whole camp could see. You could see the flames--not just the smoke--you could see the flames from the chimney. And, well, of course, when they were burning the Muselmaenner, the people that were skeletons, only the smoke. But when there were fat people, with still fat on them, there were flames.


  • US Holocaust Memorial Museum Collection
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