Varian Fry was an American journalist who helped anti-Nazi refugees escape from France between 1940 and 1941. Learn about his rescue efforts.
Vicki Baum was a bestselling author who embraced the ideals of liberation for women. Her works were burned during the Nazi book burnings of 1933. Learn more.
The Nazis carried out genocide against Europe’s Jews and persecuted and murdered other groups based on racial theories. Learn about the history of these murderous ideas.
Vidkun Quisling, Minister President of Norway from 1942 to 1945, was a Norwegian fascist and Nazi collaborator. His last name has come to mean “traitor” or “collaborator.”
Nazi Germany annexed Austria in March 1938. Learn about Austria’s capital, Vienna, which at the time was home to a large and vibrant Jewish community.
During the Holocaust, the creation of ghettos was a key step in the Nazi process of ultimately destroying Europe's Jews. Learn about the Vilna ghetto.
Read the Jewish Partisan Educational Foundation's short biography of Vitka Kempner.
German authorities established the Vittel internment camp in occupied France in 1941. It belonged to the complex of POW camps designated Frontstalag 194.
Vladimir Lenin was the leader of the new Soviet government after the Russian Revolution of 1917. His works were burned in Nazi Germany in 1933. Learn more.
The Volkswagen automobile company went into military production during WWII, operating concentration and forced-labor camps. Learn more about its role.
In May 1939, the German transatlantic liner St. Louis sailed from Germany to Cuba. Most of the passengers were Jews fleeing Nazi Germany. Learn more about the voyage.
The voyage of the St. Louis, a German ocean liner, dramatically highlights the difficulties faced by many people trying to escape Nazi terror. Learn more.
Learn about the voyage and sinking of the Struma, an overcrowded and unsafe vessel carrying Jews attempting to leave Europe for Palestine in 1941-42.
The Vélodrome d'Hiver (or Vél d'Hiv) roundup was the largest French deportation of Jews during the Holocaust. It took place in Paris on July 16–17, 1942.
We would like to thank Crown Family Philanthropies and the Abe and Ida Cooper Foundation for supporting the ongoing work to create content and resources for the Holocaust Encyclopedia. View the list of all donors.