<p>A transport of Jewish prisoners forced to march through the snow from the Bauschovitz train station to <a href="/narrative/5386">Theresienstadt</a>. Czechoslovakia, 1942.</p>

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  • Paragraph 175 and the Nazi Campaign against Homosexuality

    Article

    Paragraph 175 was a German statute that criminalized sexual relations between men. The Nazis revised Paragraph 175 in 1935 to make it broader and harsher.

  • Paris

    Article

    When the Germans invaded France in May 1940, about 175,000 Jews resided or had found refuge in Paris. Many initially left the city, only to return after the armistice was signed in June and Paris became the seat of the German military administration. The majority of Parisian Jews lived in the 4th, 11th, 18th, and 20th districts. By late September 1940, a German census registered 150,000 Jews in Paris, including 64,000 foreigners. The persecution of Jews in Paris began in October 1941, when the Nazis…

    Paris
  • Partisan Groups in the Parczew Forests

    Article

    A Project of the Miles Lerman Center  An estimated 20,000 to 30,000 Jews fought in partisan groups based in the forests of eastern Europe. In Poland, Jews were generally excluded from partisan groups because of antisemitic and anti-Communist attitudes. While Soviet partisan units were sometimes receptive to Jewish fighters, the formation of a stronger Soviet and Polish resistance in 1943 was too late for the vast majority of Jews in eastern Europe killed in mass shootings and gassings. The Jewish…

  • Paul Klee

    Article

    Paul Klee was a German-Swiss painter and graphic artist who taught at the Bauhaus. His art was targeted in the Nazi book burnings and “Degenerate Art” exhibition.

    Paul Klee
  • Paul von Hindenburg

    Article

     Field Marshal Paul von Hindenburg was a German general who gained ren...

    Paul von Hindenburg
  • Pearl Harbor

    Article

    Japan's aerial attack on Pearl Harbor on December 7, 1941, changed many Americans' attitudes toward involvement in WWII. The US immediately declared war on Japan.

    Pearl Harbor
  • Perpetrators

    Article

    The SS, a Nazi paramilitary led by Heinrich Himmler, played the central role in carrying out the “Final Solution,” the plan to murder the Jews of Europe. But, the SS did not work alone. They relied upon other German institutions and professionals.

    Perpetrators
  • Gay Men under the Nazi Regime

    Article

    The Nazi regime carried out a campaign against male homosexuality and persecuted gay men between 1933 and 1945.

    Gay Men under the Nazi Regime
  • Persecution of Roma (Gypsies) in Prewar Germany, 1933–1939

    Article

    Persecution of Roma (Gypsies) in Prewar Germany and throughout Europe preceded the Nazi takeover of power in 1933. For example, in 1899, the police in the German state of Bavaria, formed the Central Office for Gypsy Affairs (Zigeunerzentrale) to coordinate police action against Roma in the city of Munich. This office compiled a central registry of Roma that grew to include data on Roma and Sinti from other German states.  After the Nazis came to power in 1933, police in Germany began more rigorous…

    Persecution of Roma (Gypsies) in Prewar Germany, 1933–1939
  • Personal Stories: Jewish Partisans

    Article

    Browse a series of short biographies from the Jewish Partisan Educational Foundation.

    Personal Stories: Jewish Partisans
  • Peter Bergson

    Article

    Zionist and activist Peter H. Bergson advocated in the United States for the establishment of...

  • Plight of Jewish Children

    Article

    During the Holocaust, some children went into hiding to escape Nazi persecution. They faced constant fear, dilemmas, and danger.

    Plight of Jewish Children
  • Pogroms

    Article

    Background Pogroms Pogrom is a Russian word meaning “to wreak havoc, to demolish violently.” Historically, the term refers to violent attacks by local non-Jewish populations on Jews in the Russian Empire and in other countries. The first such incident to be labeled a pogrom is believed to be anti-Jewish rioting in Odessa in 1821. As a descriptive term, “pogrom” came into common usage with extensive anti-Jewish riots that swept the southern and western provinces of the Russian Empire in…

    Pogroms
  • Poking Pine City Displaced Persons Camp

    Article

    After WWII, many Holocaust survivors, unable to return to their homes, lived in displaced persons camps in Germany, Austria, and Italy. Read about Poking Pine City DP camp.

  • Poland in 1945

    Article

    Continental Europe emerged from German domination in 1945 both shattered and transformed. One consequence of German defeat was the expansion of Soviet power and influence in eastern Europe. The Soviet victory led to a tremendous geographic shift in Polish territory and, ultimately, to the establishment of a communist dictatorship in Poland. Virtually all of Poland in its prewar boundaries had been liberated by Soviet forces by the end of January 1945. After Germany's surrender, Soviet troops occupied…

  • The Police in the Weimar Republic

    Article

    Among the most important duties of the police in any society are the maintenance of public ord...

  • Polish Jewish Refugees in Lithuania, 1939–40

    Article

    Background The outbreak of war in Poland in September 1939 trapped nearly three and a half million Jews in German- and Soviet-occupied territories. In late 1940 and early 1941, just months before the Germans began to kill Jews on a mass scale, one group of about 2,100 Polish Jews found a safe haven. Few of these refugees could have reached safety without the tireless efforts of many individuals. Several Jewish organizations and Jewish communities along the way provided funds and other help. But the most…

    Polish Jewish Refugees in Lithuania, 1939–40
  • Polish Jewish Refugees in Lithuania: Unexpected Rescue, 1940–41

    Article

    The outbreak of war in Poland in September 1939 trapped nearly three and a half million Jews in German- and Soviet-occupied territories. In late 1940 and early 1941, just months before the Germans began to implement the mass killings of Jews, one group of about 2,100 Polish Jews found a safe haven. Few of these refugees could have reached safety without the tireless efforts of many individuals. Several Jewish organizations and Jewish communities along the way provided funds and other help. The most…

  • Polish Jewish Refugees in the Shanghai Ghetto, 1941–1945

    Article

    Background The outbreak of war in Poland in September 1939 trapped nearly three and a half million Jews in German- and Soviet-occupied territories. In late 1940 and early 1941, just months before the Germans began to systematically kill Jews in large numbers, one group of about 2,100 Polish Jews found a safe haven. Few of these refugees could have reached safety without the tireless efforts of many individuals. Several Jewish organizations and Jewish communities along the way provided funds and other…

    Polish Jewish Refugees in the Shanghai Ghetto, 1941–1945
  • Polish Jews in Lithuania: Escape to Japan

    Article

    Background The German attack on Poland in September 1939 trapped nearly 3.5 million Jews in German- and Soviet-occupied territories. In late 1940 and early 1941, just months before the Germans initiated the mass murder of Jews in the Soviet Union, some 2,100 Polish Jews found temporary safe haven in Lithuania. Few of these refugees could have reached permanent safety without the tireless efforts of many individuals. Several Jewish organizations and Jewish communities along the way provided funds and…

    Polish Jews in Lithuania: Escape to Japan
  • Polish Refugees in Iran during World War II

    Article

    Background On September 1, 1939, German forces invaded Poland and defeated the Polish Army within weeks. Most of the westernmost Polish territory was annexed directly to the Reich; the remainder of the areas conceded to Germany by the Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact between the Soviet Union and Germany became the so-called General Government (Generalgouvernement), administered by the German occupiers. In accordance with the Pact’s secret protocols, the Soviet Union annexed most of eastern Poland after…

    Polish Refugees in Iran during World War II
  • Polish Victims

    Article

    In September 1939, the Germans launched a campaign of terror intended to destroy the Polish nation and culture. Learn more about the German occupation of Poland.

    Polish Victims
  • Political Prisoners

    Article

    Hitler's political opponents were the first victims of systematic Nazi persecution. They were incarcerated without trial and under conditions of great cruelty.

    Political Prisoners

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