<p>A transport of Jewish prisoners forced to march through the snow from the Bauschovitz train station to <a href="/narrative/5386">Theresienstadt</a>. Czechoslovakia, 1942.</p>

Artifact

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  • Page from volume 5 of a set of scrapbooks documenting the German occupation of Denmark

    Artifact

    Page from volume 5 of a set of scrapbooks compiled by Bjorn Sibbern, a Danish policeman and resistance member, documenting the German occupation of Denmark. Bjorn's wife Tove was also active in the Danish resistance. After World War II, Bjorn and Tove moved to Canada and later settled in California, where Bjorn compiled five scrapbooks dedicated to the Sibbern's daughter, Lisa. The books are fully annotated in English and contain photographs, documents and three-dimensional artifacts documenting all…

    Page from volume 5 of a set of scrapbooks documenting the German occupation of Denmark
  • Page from volume 5 of a set of scrapbooks documenting the German occupation of Denmark

    Artifact

    Page from volume 5 of a set of scrapbooks compiled by Bjorn Sibbern, a Danish policeman and resistance member, documenting the German occupation of Denmark. Bjorn's wife Tove was also active in the Danish resistance. After World War II, Bjorn and Tove moved to Canada and later settled in California, where Bjorn compiled five scrapbooks dedicated to the Sibbern's daughter, Lisa. The books are fully annotated in English and contain photographs, documents and three-dimensional artifacts documenting all…

    Page from volume 5 of a set of scrapbooks documenting the German occupation of Denmark
  • Page of International Military Tribunal program

    Artifact

    Floor plan of the courtroom. The plan appeared in a mimeographed program booklet distributed at the International Military Tribunal at Nuremberg. 1945.

    Page of International Military Tribunal program
  • Page of recipes from Eva Ostwalt's cookbook

    Artifact

    Eva Ostwalt was born in Cologne, Germany, to Jewish parents. She had two younger sisters, Kate and Trude. In 1927, Eva moved with her daughter, Heidemarie, and non-Jewish husband to Dresden. Eva and Karl later divorced, and Eva received custody of Heidemarie. Mother and daughter moved to Merano, Italy. When Eva’s passport expired in 1938, she had to return to Germany. Believing that Heidemarie would be safer with her father, Eva gave custody back to Karl in Dresden. Eva returned to Cologne, where both…

    Page of recipes from Eva Ostwalt's cookbook
  • Pages of Hebrew prayer books damaged during Kristallnacht

    Artifact

    The pages photographed here are from Hebrew prayer books destroyed during the Kristallnacht ("Night of Broken Glass") pogrom of November 9 and 10, 1938. These pages were damaged by fire during the destruction of the synagogue in Bobenhausen, Germany. The Jewish community of Giessen donated them to the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum in 1989.

    Pages of Hebrew prayer books damaged during Kristallnacht
  • Palace of Justice Entry Pass

    Artifact

    Entry pass to the court building at the International Military Tribunal. This pass was issued to a U.S. military guard.

    Palace of Justice Entry Pass
  • Palace of Justice Entry Pass

    Artifact

    Back side of an entry pass to the court building at the International Military Tribunal. This pass was issued to a U.S. military guard. The pass is printed in each of the IMT's four official languages.

    Palace of Justice Entry Pass
  • Pamphlet cover

    Artifact

    Illustration from cover of a German anti-Masonic pamphlet by Friedrich Haffelbacher, entitled "Das Todesurteil ueber die Freimaurerei in Deutschland" [The Death Sentence for Freemasons in Germany].

    Tags: freemasonry
    Pamphlet cover
  • Pants belonging to Marjan Glass

    Artifact

    Pants worn by Marjan Glass as he dug anti-tank ditches for the defense of Warsaw, Poland, and then as he hastily fled the city ahead of the German advance on September 7, 1939. Glass, a lawyer, escaped with his wife and three-year-old son, and his wife's mother and brother. He left without taking the time to change from his soiled work clothing. [From the USHMM special exhibition Flight and Rescue.]

    Pants belonging to Marjan Glass
  • Passover Haggadah printed in Shanghai

    Artifact

    A Passover Haggadah published by rabbinical students in Shanghai in 1943. [From the USHMM special exhibition Flight and Rescue.]

    Passover Haggadah printed in Shanghai
  • Playbill

    Artifact

    Program for an evening performance sponsored by the Shanghai Jewish Club. The program included the play "The Day of His Return" and a concert of Jewish songs. On April 27, 1943, the day of this performance featuring Warsaw Jewish actress Raya Zomina, fierce fighting continued in the Warsaw ghetto between German troops and Jews who chose to resist Nazi efforts to liquidate the ghetto. Terrifying rumors about the Holocaust reached the Jewish refugees in Shanghai, but they did not receive reliable news or…

    Playbill
  • Portrait by refugee artist Yonia Fain

    Artifact

    Portrait of Janek Goldstein, in pencil, by Yonia Fain. Goldstein, a friend of the artist in Shanghai, was the son of Bernard Goldstein, who was active in the Bundist underground of the Warsaw ghetto and participated in the 1943 uprising. [From the USHMM special exhibition Flight and Rescue.]

    Portrait by refugee artist Yonia Fain
  • Portrait by refugee artist Yonia Fain

    Artifact

    Portrait of Semek Kushner, in pencil, by Yonia Fain. Kushner's father and brother were killed in Shanghai near the end of the war during an American air raid on Hongkew. [From the USHMM special exhibition Flight and Rescue.]

    Portrait by refugee artist Yonia Fain
  • Portrait of Masha Rolnik, by Esther Lurie

    Artifact

    "Portrait of Masha Rolnik, Leibisch concentration camp, 1944" by Esther Lurie. This image shows three sketches of Masha Rolnikaite (Rolnik) drawn by Esther Lurie, in approximately 1965, for the cover of Masha's memoir, Ikh muz dertseyin [I have to tell]. They reproduce the drawing of Masha that Esther made when both were prisoners in a forced-labor camp.   Esther Lurie was active in documenting scenes of life in the Kovno ghetto and in forced-labor camps. She buried most of her works in the hope that…

    Portrait of Masha Rolnik, by Esther Lurie
  • Poster advertising anti-Jewish boycott

    Artifact

    This poster from Munich, Germany, proclaims the April 1, 1933, boycott of Jewish-owned businesses and services offered by Jewish professionals. It calls on all Germans to honor the boycott, which began at 10 a.m. The poster was signed by the radical Nazi antisemite, Julius Streicher, official organizer of the boycott.

    Poster advertising anti-Jewish boycott
  • Postwar testimony of Rudolf Höss

    Artifact

    A page from the transcript of the testimony given by Rudolf Höss at the International Military Tribunal at Nuremberg. At the trial, Höss testified about the gassing of Jews of Auschwitz, where he was commandant. He responded in German and communicated through a translator. Testimony dated April 2, 1946.    

    Postwar testimony of Rudolf Höss
  • Print of "Portrait of a Young Girl with Two Yellow Badges" by Esther Lurie

    Artifact

    This image shows a print of a portrait drawing by artist Esther Lurie. Lurie documented scenes of life in the Kovno ghetto and contributed to the secret archives there. The subject of the portrait is a young woman in a checked dress with two Star of David patches. This print is a version of the drawing, "Portrait of a Young Girl with Two Yellow Badges," which Lurie did in the Kovno ghetto and for which she was awarded the Dizengoff Prize in 1946 in Palestine. Because the majority of Lurie's works were…

    Print of "Portrait of a Young Girl with Two Yellow Badges" by Esther Lurie
  • Racial chart

    Artifact

    Racial chart entitled "Races of the World I/Europe and its Border Areas."

    Racial chart
  • Railcar: Interior

    Artifact

    Many different kinds of railway cars were used for deportations. They varied in size and weight. The railway car on display in the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum's Permanent Exhibition is of just one type used. The dimensions of the railway car in the Museum's exhibition are as follows: Total length 31 feet 6 inches (9.6 meters); interior space for deportees 26 feet 2 inches (8 meters). Total height 14 feet (4.3 meters) from the bottom of the wheel to the highest point of the car; interior space…

    Railcar: Interior
  • Recipes from Eva Ostwalt's cookbook

    Artifact

    Eva Ostwalt was born in Cologne, Germany, to Jewish parents. She had two younger sisters, Kate and Trude. In 1927, Eva moved with her daughter, Heidemarie, and non-Jewish husband to Dresden. Eva and Karl later divorced, and Eva received custody of Heidemarie. Mother and daughter moved to Merano, Italy. When Eva’s passport expired in 1938, she had to return to Germany. Believing that Heidemarie would be safer with her father, Eva gave custody back to Karl in Dresden. Eva returned to Cologne, where both…

    Recipes from Eva Ostwalt's cookbook
  • Refugee's notebook

    Artifact

    Notebook of Josef Fiszman, a refugee writer from Warsaw. He sold articles to Jewish newspapers in Shanghai and Harbin but still needed help to live from the American Jewish Joint Distribution Committee. Writing in Yiddish, Fiszman rotated the notebook in order to write from right to left (the words "Note book" thus appear to be upside down in this image). [From the USHMM special exhibition Flight and Rescue.]

    Refugee's notebook
  • Refugee's suitcase

    Artifact

    A suitcase used (ca. 1939) by a Jewish refugee fleeing Nazi-occupied Europe to Japan. The suitcase is covered with labels from various stops along the journey, including one from a hotel in Moscow (top left), one for the NYK Line (top middle), and six from hotels throughout Japan. [From the USHMM special exhibition Flight and Rescue.]

    Tags: refugees Japan
    Refugee's suitcase
  • Refugee's writings

    Artifact

    Yiddish writings of Josef Fiszman, a refugee writer from Warsaw. These are some Inside pages of a Fiszman's journal. The journal was written in Shanghai and is entitled "The Sun Never Shines At Night." [From the USHMM special exhibition Flight and Rescue.]

    Refugee's writings
  • Religious articles found on death march victim

    Artifact

    Set of tefillin in an embroidered bag. Tefillin are ritual objects worn by religious Jews during weekday morning prayers. This set was found on the body of a death march victim, who was buried near Regensburg, Germany.

    Religious articles found on death march victim
  • Reverse of a Kripo warrant disc listing the officer's number

    Artifact

    Reverse of the official identification tag (warrant badge) for the Kriminalpolizei or Kripo, the detective police force of Nazi Germany. It reads Staatliche Kriminalpolizei (State Criminal Police) and identifies the officer's number as 8409.

    Reverse of a Kripo warrant disc listing the officer's number
  • Romani (Gypsy) musician's violin used in a prewar musical band

    Artifact

    Violin owned by Rita Prigmore and originally used by her father, who played with his four brothers in a band in Germany before World War II. Rita and her family were members of the Sinti group of Roma (Gypsies). She and her twin sister Rolanda were born in 1943. Rolanda died as a result of medical experiments on twins in the clinic where they were born. Rita and her mother survived the war and moved to the United States, before returning to Germany to run a Sinti human rights organization that sought to…

    Romani (Gypsy) musician's violin used in a prewar musical band
  • Romani (Gypsy) woman's skirt

    Artifact

    This taffeta and cotton skirt dates from the 1920s. It belonged to a Romani (Gypsy) woman who was born in Frankfurt, Germany, and who lived in Germany before the war. She was arrested by the Nazis and interned in the Auschwitz, Ravensbrück, Mauthausen, and Bergen-Belsen camps. She died in Bergen-Belsen in March 1945, shortly before the camp's liberation. Her husband and two of her six children were also killed in the camps.

    Romani (Gypsy) woman's skirt
  • Rope used in hanging

    Artifact

    Rope used in the hanging of Noach Meck in Kovno.

    Rope used in hanging
  • Rosh Hashanah card

    Artifact

    A Rosh Hashanah (Jewish New Year) greeting card. Sorle and Shalomis Gorfinkel presented this card to their parents on the occasion of Rosh Hashanah 5704, the Jewish New Year 1943. The Gorfinkel family was part of the Mir Yeshiva community in Shanghai.

    Rosh Hashanah card
  • Rosh Hashanah card

    Artifact

    Sorle and Shalomis Gorfinkel presented this card to their parents on the occasion of Rosh Hashanah 5704, the Jewish New Year 1943. The Gorfinkel family was part of the Mir Yeshiva community in Shanghai.

    Rosh Hashanah card
  • Sandals

    Artifact

    Wooden sandals worn by a member of the Mir Yeshiva in Shanghai. [From the USHMM special exhibition Flight and Rescue.]

    Sandals
  • Scales used by refugees

    Artifact

    Scale used by refugees Masza Swislocki and George Lieberfreund to weigh jars of artificial honey, which they manufactured and sold in the restricted area of Shanghai. [From the USHMM special exhibition Flight and Rescue.]

    Scales used by refugees
  • Scrapbook

    Artifact

    Many observers at the IMT, aware of the historic nature of the trial, created scrapbooks to preserve their own record of the Nuremberg court. First Lieutenant Herman E. Klappert, Jr. was a photographer with the U.S. Army Signal Corps who assembled three such scrapbooks. Klappert's albums consist almost entirely of photographs that he printed himself. Also included in the albums are original autographs from the defendants and other principal figures at the trial, official identification cards issued to…

    Scrapbook
  • Scrapbook

    Artifact

    Many observers at the International Military Tribunal (IMT) at Nuremberg, aware of the historic nature of the trial, created scrapbooks to preserve their own record of the Nuremberg court. First Lieutenant Herman E. Klappert, Jr. was a photographer with the U.S. Army Signal Corps who assembled three such scrapbooks. Klappert's albums consist almost entirely of photographs that he printed himself. Also included in the albums are original autographs from the defendants and other principal figures at the…

    Scrapbook
  • Selma Engel diary entry about arrival in Sobibor

    Artifact

    Diaries reveal some of the most intimate, heart-wrenching accounts of the Holocaust. They record in real time the feelings of loss, fear, and, sometimes, hope of those facing extraordinary peril.  Selma Wijnberg and Chaim Engel met and fell in love in the Sobibor killing center. After the young couple made a daring escape during the camp uprising and fled into hiding, Selma began a diary to record their experiences. The diary was written in 1943-1944 while Selma was in hiding in German-occupied Poland.…

    Selma Engel diary entry about arrival in Sobibor
  • Selma Engel diary entry about escaping during the Sobibor uprising

    Artifact

    Diaries reveal some of the most intimate, heart-wrenching accounts of the Holocaust. They record in real time the feelings of loss, fear, and, sometimes, hope of those facing extraordinary peril. Selma Wijnberg and Chaim Engel met and fell in love in the Sobibor killing center. After the young couple made a daring escape during the camp uprising and fled into hiding, Selma began a diary to record their experiences. The diary was written in 1943-1944 while Selma was in hiding in German-occupied…

    Selma Engel diary entry about escaping during the Sobibor uprising
  • Selma Engel diary entry about life in hiding

    Artifact

    Diaries reveal some of the most intimate, heart-wrenching accounts of the Holocaust. They record in real time the feelings of loss, fear, and, sometimes, hope of those facing extraordinary peril. Selma Wijnberg and Chaim Engel met and fell in love in the Sobibor killing center. After the young couple made a daring escape during the camp uprising and fled into hiding, Selma began a diary to record their experiences. The diary was written in 1943-1944 while Selma was in hiding in German-occupied…

    Selma Engel diary entry about life in hiding
  • Sign excluding Jews from public places

    Artifact

    Signs excluding Jews, such as the sign shown here, were posted in public places (including parks, theaters, movie houses, and restaurants) throughout Nazi Germany. This sign states in German: "Jews are not wanted here."

    Sign excluding Jews from public places
  • Sign from Shanghai Ghetto

    Artifact

    One of many signs displayed along the Shanghai ghetto's boundaries: "Stateless Refugees are Prohibited to Pass Here without Permission". This plaque was removed by a refugee at the end of the war. [From the USHMM special exhibition Flight and Rescue.]

    Sign from Shanghai Ghetto
  • Silver kiddush cups of Caspary family

    Artifact

    Goblets used in Shanghai by the Caspary family for blessings (Kiddush) over wine on the Sabbath or Jewish holidays. The Orthodox Casparys ran a kosher restaurant frequented by yeshiva students from Poland. [From the USHMM special exhibition Flight and Rescue.]

    Silver kiddush cups of Caspary family
  • Singer sewing machine from the Lodz ghetto

    Artifact

    This Singer sewing machine was used by shoemakers in the Lodz ghetto, Poland. As early as May 1940, the Germans began to establish factories in the ghetto and to utilize Jewish residents for forced labor. By August 1942, there were almost 100 factories within the ghetto. The major factories produced textiles, especially uniforms, for the German army.

    Singer sewing machine from the Lodz ghetto
  • Sketch from a scrapbook presented during an inspection of Djelfa

    Artifact

    Sketch from the scrapbook of Donald Coster presented to him during his inspection of the internment camp in Djelfa. The page is entitled, "All roads don't lead to Rome." Djelfa, Algeria, ca. 1941. 

    Tags: North Africa
    Sketch from a scrapbook presented during an inspection of Djelfa
  • Sketch from scrapbook presented during inspection of Djelfa

    Artifact

    Sketch from the scrapbook of Donald Coster presented to him during his inspection of the internment camp in Djelfa. The page is entitled, "Gulliver's travels to Djelfa." Djelfa, Algeria, ca. 1942.

    Tags: North Africa
    Sketch from scrapbook presented during inspection of Djelfa
  • Small hooked rug used in the wagon of a Romani (Gypsy) family

    Artifact

    This small patterned hooked rug was used as a shoe mat in the wagon of Rita Prigmore and her family when she was a child in Wurzberg, Germany, after World War II. Rita and her family were members of the Sinti group of Roma (Gypsies). She and her twin sister Rolanda were born in 1943. Rolanda died as a result of medical experiments on twins in the clinic where they were born. Rita was returned to her family in 1944. She and her mother survived the war and moved to the United States, before returning to…

    Small hooked rug used in the wagon of a Romani (Gypsy) family
  • Souvenir stamp book

    Artifact

    A souvenir stamp book that belonged to a Jewish refugee. The book contains multicolored stamps inscribed with dates and place names. May 1941, Kobe, Japan. [From the USHMM special exhibition Flight and Rescue.]

    Tags: refugees Japan
    Souvenir stamp book
  • St. Louis photo album

    Artifact

    Photo album containing photographs taken by a passenger aboard the St. Louis, with a depiction of the ship on the cover. In 1939, this German ocean liner carried Jewish refugees seeking temporary refuge in Cuba. It was forced to return to Europe after Cuba refused to allow the refugees entry into the country.

    St. Louis photo album
  • Stamps

    Artifact

    A special issue of Serbian stamps bearing antisemitic and anti-Masonic themes dating from the German occupation. The series was issued for an exhibition on Jews and Freemasons in Belgrade in 1942.

    Stamps
  • Stroop Report cover

    Artifact

    SS Major General Juergen Stroop, commander of German forces that suppressed the Warsaw ghetto uprising, compiled an album of photographs and other materials. This album, later known as "The Stroop Report," was introduced as evidence at the International Military Tribunal at Nuremberg. Here, its cover is marked with an IMT evidence stamp.

    Stroop Report cover
  • Suitcase belonging to a Polish Jewish refugee (exterior)

    Artifact

    A few Polish Jewish refugees left Japan to join a small Jewish community in Harbin, Manchuria, in Japanese-occupied China. One of them carried this suitcase, covered with stickers from various shipping firms and hotels, on the journey to Harbin. China, 1940-1941. [From the USHMM special exhibition Flight and Rescue.]

    Suitcase belonging to a Polish Jewish refugee (exterior)
  • Suitcase belonging to a Polish-Jewish refugee

    Artifact

    A small group of Jewish refugees left Japan to join a small Jewish community in Harbin, Manchuria, in Japanese-occupied China. This image shows the interior of a leather suitcase carried by one of them to Harbin, China, 1940-1941. [From the USHMM special exhibition Flight and Rescue.]

    Suitcase belonging to a Polish-Jewish refugee

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