<p>A transport of Jewish prisoners forced to march through the snow from the Bauschovitz train station to <a href="/narrative/5386">Theresienstadt</a>. Czechoslovakia, 1942.</p>

Artifact

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  • "What shall be done with the war criminals?"

    Artifact

    Cover of booklet titled "What Shall Be Done with the War Criminals?" Published by the United States Armed Forces Institute, this was one of a series of 42 pamphlets created by the U.S. War Department under the series title "G.I. Roundtable." From 1943-1945, these pamphlets were created to "increase the effectiveness of the soldiers and officers and fighters during the war and as citizens after the war." Many of the pamphlets addressed the possibilities of a postwar world.

    "What shall be done with the war criminals?"
  • 1936 Berlin Olympics torch holder

    Artifact

    This Olympic torch holder was used during the 1936 Berlin Olympics. It is engraved with the 1936 Olympics torch relay route from Olympia, Greece, to Berlin, Germany. 

    1936 Berlin Olympics torch holder
  • 1963 postage stamp commemorating Treblinka

    Artifact

    In 1963, the German Democratic Republic (DDR) issued this postage stamp to commemorate the Treblinka killing center. This was the first stamp of a series issued annually by the DDR under the name Mahn- und Gedensksatte (Remembrance and Memorial Center) in remembrance and commemoration. 

    1963 postage stamp commemorating Treblinka
  • A Kripo agent's identifying warrant disc

    Artifact

    Official identification tag (warrant badge) for the Criminal Police (Kriminalpolizei or Kripo), the detective police force of Nazi Germany. These badges were generally suspended from a chain and included the officer's identification number on the reverse.

    A Kripo agent's identifying warrant disc
  • A page from the Fenyves family cookbook

    Artifact

    Steven Fenves (born Fenyves) and his family lived in Subotica, Yugoslavia. His father, Lajos, managed a publishing house and his mother, Klári (Klara), was a graphic artist. In April 1941, Subotica fell under Hungarian occupation. Until May 1944, the Fenyveses lived in one corner of their apartment while Hungarian officers took over the rest of the family’s home.

    In March 1944, Germany occupied Hungary. In April, Lajos was deported to the Auschwitz camp in German-occupied Poland. Steven, his sister Estera, mother, and maternal grandmother were forced into a ghetto before being deported to a transit camp and then to Auschwitz.

    This page shows a recipe in the Fenyves family cookbook. Klári Fenyves created the cookbook, which was written in Hungarian. After the family was forced to leave their apartment before deportation, the family’s cook, Maris, saved this cookbook and some of Klári Fenyves’ artwork. She returned the artwork and the cookbook to the surviving family members after the war. Estera, Steven, and Lajos had survived, although Lajos died a few months after they were reunited.

    A page from the Fenyves family cookbook
  • Abraham Lewent's prisoner jacket

    Artifact

    Abraham Lewent, who had been sent from the Warsaw ghetto to Majdanek and later transferred to several concentration camps in Germany, wore this jacket as part of the uniform issued to him upon his arrival in the Buchenwald concentration camp in 1944.

    Abraham Lewent's prisoner jacket
  • Additional page from the Fenyves family cookbook

    Artifact

    Steven Fenves (born Fenyves) and his family lived in Subotica, Yugoslavia. His father, Lajos, managed a publishing house and his mother, Klári (Klara), was a graphic artist. In April 1941, Subotica fell under Hungarian occupation. Until May 1944, the Fenyveses lived in one corner of their apartment while Hungarian officers took over the rest of the family’s home.

    In March 1944, Germany occupied Hungary. In April, Lajos was deported to the Auschwitz camp in German-occupied Poland. Steven, his sister Estera, mother, and maternal grandmother were forced into a ghetto before being deported to a transit camp and then to Auschwitz.

    This page shows a recipe in the Fenyves family cookbook. Klári Fenyves created the cookbook, which was written in Hungarian. After the family was forced to leave their apartment before deportation, the family’s cook, Maris, saved this cookbook and some of Klári Fenyves’ artwork. She returned the artwork and the cookbook to the surviving family members after the war. Estera, Steven, and Lajos had survived, although Lajos died a few months after they were reunited.

    Additional page from the Fenyves family cookbook
  • Alice (Lisl) Winternitz's luggage tag

    Artifact

    This paper tag identified bedding belonging to Alice (Lisl) Winternitz when she was deported from Prague, Czechoslovakia, to the Theresienstadt ghetto in June 1942.

    Alice (Lisl) Winternitz's luggage tag
  • Another page from the Fenyves family cookbook

    Artifact

    Steven Fenves (born Fenyves) and his family lived in Subotica, Yugoslavia. His father, Lajos, managed a publishing house and his mother, Klári (Klara), was a graphic artist. In April 1941, Subotica fell under Hungarian occupation. Until May 1944, the Fenyveses lived in one corner of their apartment while Hungarian officers took over the rest of the family’s home.

    In March 1944, Germany occupied Hungary. In April, Lajos was deported to the Auschwitz camp in German-occupied Poland. Steven, his sister Estera, mother, and maternal grandmother were forced into a ghetto before being deported to a transit camp and then to Auschwitz.

    This page shows a recipe in the Fenyves family cookbook. Klári Fenyves created the cookbook, which was written in Hungarian. After the family was forced to leave their apartment before deportation, the family’s cook, Maris, saved this cookbook and some of Klári Fenyves’ artwork. She returned the artwork and the cookbook to the surviving family members after the war. Estera, Steven, and Lajos had survived, although Lajos died a few months after they were reunited.

    Another page from the Fenyves family cookbook
  • Anti-Masonic poster

    Artifact

    Eugenics poster entitled "The relationship between Jews and Freemasons." The text at the top reads: "World politics World revolution." The text at the bottom reads, "Freemasonry is an international organization beholden to Jewry with the political goal of establishing Jewish domination through world-wide revolution." The map, decorated with Masonic symbols (temple, square, and apron), shows where revolutions took place in Europe from the French Revolution in 1789 through the German Revolution in 1919. This poster is no. 64 in a series entitled Erblehre und Rassenkunde (Theory of Inheritance and Racial Hygiene), published by the Verlag fuer nationale Literatur (Publisher for National Literature), Stuttgart, Germany, ca. 1935.

    Anti-Masonic poster
  • Antisemitic children's book

    Artifact

    Antisemitic children's book published in 1936 in Nuremberg, Germany. The title, in German, is translated as "You Can't Trust a Fox in the Heath and a Jew on his Oath: A Picture Book for Young and Old." The cover depicts a fox in the heath and a caricature of a Jew taking an oath.

    Antisemitic children's book
  • Antisemitic poster

    Artifact

    Antisemitic propaganda flyer comparing Jews to diseases. It reads "Tuberculose Syphilis Cancer are curable ... It is necessary to finish the biggest curse: The Jew!"

    Antisemitic poster
  • Armband for "Foreign Pao Chia Vigilance Corps Pao"

    Artifact

    Identifying armband worn by Pao Chia member. In 1942 the Japanese in Shanghai established self-policing units, Pao Chia, composed of all men, foreigners and Chinese, aged 20 to 45. In the designated area, male refugees served several hours weekly in rotating shifts as guards for buildings and ghetto entrances where they examined passes. Despite the Japanese use of the Pao Chia to help police the ghetto, it was relatively easy to leave the "designated area," which was not walled in. Individuals who did so, however, risked being stopped by police on the outside. [From the USHMM special exhibition Flight and Rescue.]

    Armband for "Foreign Pao Chia Vigilance Corps Pao"
  • Back cover of Stanislava Roztropowicz's diary

    Artifact

    Stanislava Roztropowicz kept a diary from 1943-1944. In it, she describes her family's decision to hide an abandoned Jewish girl, Sabina Heller (Kagan). 

    Sabina Kagan was an infant when SS mobile killing squads began rounding up Jews in her Polish village of Radziwillow in 1942. Her parents persuaded a local policeman to hide the family. The policeman, however, soon asked the Kagans to leave but agreed to hide baby Sabina. Her parents were captured and killed. Sabina was concealed in a dark basement, with minimal food and clothing. She was discovered and taken in by the Roztropowicz family in 1943.

    This image shows an entry written on the back cover of the diary kept by Stanislava, one of Sabina's rescuers. Stanislava recorded events of the war, updates on the eldest Roztropowicz child who was in forced labor, and the progress of Sabina, whom the family decided to call "Inka."

    Back cover of Stanislava Roztropowicz's diary
  • Backpack belonging to Ruth Berkowitz

    Artifact

    This tan backpack was used by Ruth Berkowitz to carry her belongings as she fled from Warsaw via Lithuania and the Soviet Union to Japan. Most of her possessions were confiscated by both the Nazis and the Soviets during her journey. [From the USHMM special exhibition Flight and Rescue.]

    Backpack belonging to Ruth Berkowitz
  • Beads used by a Dutch Jewish girl in hiding

    Artifact

    These tiny black, white, gold, and clear glass beads used by Rachel “Chelly” de Groot from November 1942 to April 1944 and recovered by her brother Louis after the war. Chelly used the beads to make handicrafts.

    On November 16, 1942, Chelly, then 15, Louis, 13, and their parents Meijer and Sophia left Arnhem and went into hiding after the Dutch police warned them of a raid. Meijer and Sophia hid in Amsterdam while Chelly and Louis moved around to different locations. In summer or fall 1943, Chelly went to Amsterdam to live with her parents. In December, Louis was sent to Lemmer to live with the Onderweegs family.

    In February 1944, Dirk Onderweegs offered to take Chelly to a safer hiding place. But on April 8, 1944, four days before Dirk was to return, Chelly and her parents were denounced and arrested. They were sent to Westerbork transit camp, then to Auschwitz. Chelly and Sophia were killed upon arrival in Auschwitz on May 22, 1944. Meijer was selected for a work detail and was killed later on September 30, 1944.

    Louis remained in hiding with the Onderweegs until liberation in mid-April 1945.

    Beads used by a Dutch Jewish girl in hiding
  • Beifeld album page about Soviet counteroffensive

    Artifact

    (Top and bottom) The image at the top shows Hungarian soldiers abandoning their trenches on the front lines as a Soviet tank overruns the barbed wire fortification separating the two armies. The drawing at the bottom captioned "Alarm," shows Hungarian soldiers running back and forth sounding the alarm of the Soviet counteroffensive. The drawings are dated Jan 11 and 13, 1943. [Photograph #58103]

    Beifeld album page about Soviet counteroffensive
  • Beifeld album page about conditions

    Artifact

    (Middle, left and bottom) In the drawing at the middle, left, Hungarian soldiers use an ax to cut up a dead horse in order to get meat to sustain themselves. The image at the bottom, titled "The Long Trip, February 1943," shows a Hungarian soldier walking along a road past a dead horse and an abandoned harrow that is half buried in the snow. [Photograph #58110]

    Beifeld album page about conditions
  • Beifeld album page about events of August 28, 1942

    Artifact

    (Top) A drawing dated October 1942 depicting the events of August 28 when Beifeld was wounded near the front lines. His caption reads: "I get wounded and manage to get away from the dangerous bend in the [Don] river]." (Bottom left) Skull of a Soviet soldier with the caption 'Keep Smiling.' (Bottom right) Map entitled 'Dangerous Curve' depicting the bend in the Don River where the Soviet army was threatening to break through. [Photograph # 58061]

    Beifeld album page about events of August 28, 1942
  • Beifeld album page about partisans and lodgings

    Artifact

    (top) "Watercolor entitled 'Partisan hotel and public house', Krassnolipia, Ukraine, until July 31, 1942"; (middle) "Drawing entitled 'The interrogation of partisans captured by our unit'"; (bottom) "Watercolor entitled 'My lodgings in Krassnolipia'" [Photograph #58040]

    Beifeld album page about partisans and lodgings
  • Beifeld album page about patriotism

    Artifact

    (Bottom) A drawing illustrating the patriotism of the Hungarian Jewish Labor Serviceman. Despite the fact that the Jew is denied the right to wear a military uniform and bear arms, Erno Steiner picks up the abandoned machine gun of First Lieutenant Hevessy of the 4th Infantry Division and starts firing at Soviet troops to fend them off. [Photograph #58015]

    Beifeld album page about patriotism
  • Beifeld album page illustrating fortifications and first fatality

    Artifact

    (Bottom) View of fortifications built at Kalimovka to defend the advancing troops of the 4th Infantry Division of the Hungarian 2nd Army. In the lower right corner of the drawing, men prepare the grave of Jewish Labor Serviceman Nandor Klein, the first fatality of the company. The Hungarian caption reads: The death of our first hero, Nandor Klein, his grave, June 5, 1942." Klein was killed by a stray Soviet bullet on his way back to base. [Photograph #58013]

    Beifeld album page illustrating fortifications and first fatality
  • Beifeld album page illustrating military events

    Artifact

    (Top) A map dated August 1942 showing the area of the late summer skirmishes between Hungarian and Soviet forces. It also shows the crucial bend in the Don River near the town of Uryv, where the fateful Soviet breakthrough occurred in January 1943. (Bottom) "Fairy tale nights along the Don River, August 1942." [Photograph #58058]

    Beifeld album page illustrating military events
  • Beifeld album page outlining the labor service's roles in the war effort

    Artifact

    A page of drawings illustrating the contribution of Jewish Labor Servicemen to the war effort. At the top: "The different platoons work hard at the battle front and in the no man's land [between the armies]. They actively participate in the fighting. They carry ammunition to the Hungarian soldiers." In the middle: "They defuse land mines. They bury the dead, including those that had been left unburied from the winter campaign. They carry soldiers wounded on the front lines to safety." At the bottom: "For example, [Jewish Labor Serviceman] Herman Brand carried 35 wounded soldiers from the barbed wire barricades and from no man's land on May 30, 1942 during the Afanasyevica skirmish. Among those he carried was Gyula Gercsi-Suta, age 35, a lieutenant, who succumbed to his wounds at the field hospital that evening." [Photograph #58014]

    Beifeld album page outlining the labor service's roles in the war effort
  • Beifeld album page satirizing travel posters

    Artifact

    (Middle) In a take-off of travel posters advertising peaceful vacation spots, Beifeld draws a picture of a Hungarian military tent pitched next to a tree on which a bird is cheerfully chirping. Next to the tent the artist writes "Peaceful Surroundings" but above, a Soviet bomber releases a bomb aimed at the tent. [Photograph #58022]

    Beifeld album page satirizing travel posters

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