Operation Torch was the Allied invasion of French Morocco and Algeria during the North African Campaign of World War II. Learn more.
Armed Jewish resistance began in Poland in 1942. Learn more about partisan activity in the Parczew forests during World War II.
Learn about Operation “Harvest Festival” (Aktion “Erntefest”), the Nazi attack against the remaining Jews of the Lublin District of the General Government.
Otto Dix was a German artist who depicted the horrors of war. His art was targeted in the Nazi book burnings and “Degenerate Art” exhibition. Learn more.
Jews were the main target of Nazi hatred. Other individuals and groups considered "undesirable" and "enemies of the state" were also persecuted.
Explore a timeline of key events in the history of World War I and its aftermath. Learn about the conflict and its divisive peace.
Germany started World War II in Europe on September 1, 1939, by invading Poland. War would continue until 1945. Learn more about key events in the history of WWII.
World War II was the largest and most destructive conflict in history. Learn about key WWII dates in this timeline of events, including when WW2 started and ended.
While living under an assumed identity after escaping from the Lvov ghetto, Selma Schwarzwald received a toy bear that she kept with her for many years. Read about Refugee the bear.
March 13-16, 1943. On this date, SS and police authorities liquidated the Krakow ghetto.
The experiences of World War I and its aftermath would profoundly shape the attitudes and actions of leaders and ordinary people during the Holocaust.
We would like to thank Crown Family Philanthropies and the Abe and Ida Cooper Foundation for supporting the ongoing work to create content and resources for the Holocaust Encyclopedia. View the list of all donors.