Jewish groups worldwide helped rescue thousands during the Holocaust. Read more about efforts to save Jews from Nazi persecution and death.
Did King Christian X of Denmark wear a yellow star in support of the Danish Jews? Read more about the historical truth behind the legend.
During World War II, members of Jewish youth movements in Poland embraced leadership roles in ghetto resistance and partisan fighting organizations. Learn more.
Decrees that ordered Jews to wear special badges for purposes of identification existed before the Nazi era. Learn about this history.
Learn about the Jewish community of Munkacs from the eighteenth century through the aftermath of World War I.
Protestant pastor Martin Niemöller emerged as an opponent of Adolf Hitler and was imprisoned in camps for 7 years. Learn about the complexities surrounding his beliefs.
The Lebensborn program, created by the SS in late 1935, was intended to promote population growth among those whom Nazi authorities deemed “racially valuable.”
Learn more about the Law for the Imposition and Implementation of the Death Penalty, which the Nazis enacted after the Reichstag Fire Decree in 1933.
After the Nazi rise to power in 1933, the German system of justice underwent "coordination" (alignment with Nazi goals). Learn more about law and justice in the Third Reich.
Before WWII, over 3,500 Jews lived in Luxembourg. Under the German occupation, this community was almost completely destroyed. Learn more.
The Law against the Founding of New Parties proclaimed the Nazi Party as the only political party in Germany, which became a one-party dictatorship led by the Nazis.
German physicians conducted inhumane experiments on prisoners in the camps during the Holocaust. Learn more about Nazi medical experiments during WW2.
Read the Jewish Partisan Educational Foundation's short biography of Norman Salsitz.
Learn about the rescue activities and the fates of Ona Simaite in Lithuania, Joop Westerweel in the Netherlands, and Irena Sendler in Poland.
Holocaust survivor Simon Wiesenthal dedicated his life to raising public awareness of the need to hunt and prosecute Nazis who had evaded justice.
The Mechelen camp, halfway between Antwerp and Brussels, was a transit camp for the deportation of Jews from Belgium during the Holocaust.
The Oath of Loyalty for All State Officials started to change in 1934. Learn more about the oath and Germany’s journey from democracy to a Nazi dictatorship.
As of mid-2022, there were about 27 million refugees. Learn more about these refugees, the violence they face, and the global impact of the refugee crisis.
Learn more about the efforts of L.P.J. de Decker, Jan Zwartendijk, and Chiune Sugihara to help Polish Jewish refugees escape Lithuania during the war.
Operation Torch was the Allied invasion of French Morocco and Algeria during the North African Campaign of World War II. Learn more.
Armed Jewish resistance began in Poland in 1942. Learn more about partisan activity in the Parczew forests during World War II.
Learn about Operation “Harvest Festival” (Aktion “Erntefest”), the Nazi attack against the remaining Jews of the Lublin District of the General Government.
Otto Dix was a German artist who depicted the horrors of war. His art was targeted in the Nazi book burnings and “Degenerate Art” exhibition. Learn more.
Jews were the main target of Nazi hatred. Other individuals and groups considered "undesirable" and "enemies of the state" were also persecuted.
Explore a timeline of key events in the history of World War I and its aftermath. Learn about the conflict and its divisive peace.
We would like to thank Crown Family Philanthropies and the Abe and Ida Cooper Foundation for supporting the ongoing work to create content and resources for the Holocaust Encyclopedia. View the list of all donors.