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  • Jehuda Lejb Lubinski (Lolek Lubinski)

    Article

    Young people's diaries bear witness to some of the most heartbreaking experiences of the Holocaust. Learn about the diary and experiences of Lolek Lubinski

  • Sara Rachela Plagier

    Article

    Children's diaries bear witness to some of the most heartbreaking events of the Holocaust. Learn about the diary and experiences of Sara Rachela Plagier.

    Sara Rachela Plagier
  • Jutta Szmirgeld

    Article

    Children's diaries bear witness to some of the most heartbreaking events of the Holocaust. Learn about the diary and experiences of Jutta Szmirgeld.

    Jutta Szmirgeld
  • Israel Unikowski

    Article

    Children's diaries bear witness to some of the most heartbreaking events of the Holocaust. Learn about the diary and experiences of Israel Unikowski.

  • Freiberg

    Article

     

  • Lublin/Majdanek: Key Dates

    Article

    Explore a timeline of key events in the history of the Lublin/Majdanek camp in German-occupied Poland.

    Lublin/Majdanek: Key Dates
  • Lublin/Majdanek Concentration Camp: Areas of Research

    Article

    The total number of prisoners to go through the Majdanek main camp has not yet been recalculated consistent with the latest research. The number of deaths is now estimated at between 80,000 and 110,000 for the main camp alone. Most succumbed to starvation, disease, exposure, and the effects of physical torture or back-breaking labor performed under threat of violence. The SS murdered some prisoners  in the gas chambers, some upon arrival, and more after deeming them too weak to work. The total number of…

    Lublin/Majdanek Concentration Camp: Areas of Research
  • Allied Military Operations in North Africa

    Article

    Learn about the North African military campaigns of World War II which took place between September 13, 1940, and May 13, 1943.

  • Western Desert Campaign: Egypt and Libya

    Article

    Fighting began in North Africa on September 13, 1940, when Marshal Rodolfo Graziani's Italian 10th Army launched an attack from its bases in Libya on outnumbered British forces in western Egypt. A successful British counterattack initiated on December 9, 1940, led by General Sir Archibald Wavell, resulted in Italian defeat at Tobruk (Tubruq) in eastern Libya on January 22, 1941. On February 12, 1941, German General Erwin Rommel arrived in Libya to take command of troops sent to reinforce Germany's Italian…

    Western Desert Campaign: Egypt and Libya
  • Operation Torch: The Anglo-American Invasion of French North Africa

    Article

    The Operation Operation Torch was the Anglo-American invasion of French Morocco and Algeria during the North African Campaign of World War II. It began on November 8 and concluded on November 16, 1942. It resulted from an uneasy compromise between the Western Allies, and was intended to relieve pressure on the Soviet Union by imperiling Axis forces in the region and by enabling an invasion of Southern Europe in 1943. Commanded by General Dwight D. Eisenhower, the operation was designed as a pincer…

  • Tunisia Campaign

    Article

    The Tunisian campaign began with an Allied amphibious landing near Sfax in eastern Tunisia on January 5, 1943, and an attack on German positions at Gafsa in west central Tunisia on March 17, 1943. On February 4, 1943, the British Eighth Army crossed the border from Libya into Tunisia. Squeezed between US and British Commonwealth forces and cut off from his supply bases, German General Erwin Rommel attempted to stall the Allies with defensive operations. German and Italian troops managed to rout the US…

    Tunisia Campaign
  • Stanislawow (by Nechama Tec)

    Article

    A Project of the Miles Lerman Center This article excerpted from Nechama Tec, Resilience and Courage: Women, Men, and the Holocaust, New Haven: Yale University Press, 2003, pp. 336-339. Little is known about the Jews of wartime Stanislawow, their lives, resistance, and deaths. In this brief and blurred history a chemical engineer named Anda Luft played an unusual role. If we examine this young woman's actions and those of the people around her we shall find some recurrent motifs. The liquidation of the…

  • World War II Timeline

    Article

    World War II was the largest and most destructive conflict in history. Learn more in this timeline of key WWII dates and events.

    World War II Timeline
  • Nazi Racism: In Depth
  • Moses Beckelman

    Article

    A social worker from New York City, Moses Beckelman began his career with the American Jewish Joint Distribution Committee (the “Joint”) in 1939. Born and educated in New York, Beckelman had been active in the city's social services community throughout the 1930s. Arriving in Vilna in October 1939, he faced a refugee crisis of staggering proportions. With his colleague Yitzhak Gitterman, Beckelman arranged to feed, house, and clothe thousands of people, as well as provide care for children and the…

    Moses Beckelman
  • Stephen S. Wise

    Article

    Stephen Wise (1874–1949) was a prominent US Jewish leader in the 1933–1945 period. Born in Budapest in 1874 and the grandson of the Chief Rabbi of Eger, Hungary (a town about sixty miles northeast of Budapest), Stephen Wise immigrated to New York as a child. After his ordination as a Reform rabbi, he led a congregation in Portland, Oregon, where his liberal political convictions inspired him to fight for child labor laws and for the demands of striking workers. A charismatic orator, he became a…

  • World War II: In Depth

    Article

    Germany started World War II in Europe on September 1, 1939, by invading Poland. War would continue until 1945. Learn more about key events in the history of WWII.

    Tags: World War II
    World War II: In Depth
  • Glossary

    Article

    Antisemitism: hostility toward or hatred of Jews as a religious or ethnic group, often accompanied by social, economic, or political discrimination. Appellplatz: German word for roll call square where prisoners were forced to assemble. Aryan: Term used in Nazi Germany to refer to non-Jewish and non-Roma (Gypsy) Caucasians. Northern Europeans with especially "Nordic" features such as blonde hair and blue eyes were considered by so-called race scientists to be the most superior of Aryans, members of a…

    Tags: Holocaust
  • Martha and Waitstill Sharp

    Article

    Martha and Waitstill Sharp, American Unitarian aide workers, helped thousands of Jews, intelle...

    Martha and Waitstill Sharp
  • Henry Morgenthau Jr.

    Article

    Henry Morgenthau Jr. (1891–1967) served as secretary of the treasury in the Roosevelt an...

  • Auschwitz Through the Lens of the SS: The Album

    Article

    Learn about photographs contained in Karl Höcker’s album depicting official visits, ceremonies, and the social activities of the Auschwitz camp staff.

    Auschwitz Through the Lens of the SS: The Album

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