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world war I

  • Killing Centers: An Overview

    Article

    The Nazis established killing centers in German-occupied Europe during WWII. They built these killing centers for the mass murder of human beings.

    Killing Centers: An Overview
  • Charlene Schiff describes the Soviet occupation of Horochow after the outbreak of World War II

    Oral History

    Both of Charlene's parents were local Jewish community leaders, and the family was active in community life. Charlene's father was a professor of philosophy at the State University of Lvov. World War II began with the German invasion of Poland on September 1, 1939. Charlene's town was in the part of eastern Poland occupied by the Soviet Union under the German-Soviet Pact of August 1939. Under the Soviet occupation, the family remained in its home and Charlene's father continued to teach. The Germans…

    Charlene Schiff describes the Soviet occupation of Horochow after the outbreak of World War II
  • Children during the Holocaust

    Article

    Children were especially vulnerable to Nazi persecution. Learn more about the fates of Jewish and non-Jewish children.

    Children during the Holocaust
  • Erich Mühsam

    Photo

    Identification picture of Erich Mühsam taken in the Oranienburg concentration camp. Mühsam, an anarchist and a pacifist, worked as an editor and writer; he was imprisoned during World War I for opposing the war. Arrested during the massive roundup of Nazi political opponents following the Reichstag fire (February 27, 1933), Mühsam was tortured to death in Oranienburg on July 11, 1934. Oranienburg, Germany, February 3, 1934.

    Erich Mühsam
  • Sarah Judelowitz

    ID Card

    Sarah, born Sarah Gamper, was one of four children born to a Jewish family in the Baltic port city of Liepaja. Her parents owned a general store there. At the outbreak of World War I, Sarah was studying piano at a conservatory in Russia. During World War I, she remained there to serve as a nurse. She returned to Liepaja, and after marrying Herman Judelowitz in 1920, settled there. 1933-39: Sarah and Herman operated a shoe store in the front of their small shoe workshop. By 1935 they had three daughters,…

    Tags: Latvia
    Sarah Judelowitz
  • Lion Feuchtwanger

    Article

    Lion Feuchtwanger was a bestselling German Jewish author who was persecuted under the Nazi regime. His works were burned in the Nazi book burnings of May 1933.

    Lion Feuchtwanger
  • Nesse Galperin Godin describes how she met her husband after the war

    Oral History

    Nesse's family had a dairy business. The Germans occupied Lithuania in 1941 and established a ghetto in Siauliai. Nesse lived in the ghetto until 1943 when she was old enough to work. In 1944 Nesse, her mother, and a brother were deported to the Stutthof camp near Danzig. Nesse worked in several Stutthof subcamps until January 1945, when the inmates were put on a death march. She was liberated by the Soviets in March. Nesse, her mother, and two brothers survived, and she arrived in the United States in…

    Tags: postwar women
    Nesse Galperin Godin describes how she met her husband after the war
  • The 45th Infantry Division during World War II

    Article

    The 45th Infantry Division participated in major WWII campaigns and is recognized for liberating the Dachau concentration camp in 1945.

  • Artist on the Blacklist: Ludwig Meidner

    Article

    Ludwig Meidner was an Expressionist artist and poet. He was on the list of banned writers and artists in Nazi Germany. Monographs about him were burned in 1933.

    Artist on the Blacklist: Ludwig Meidner
  • Elizabeth Kaufmann Koenig describes her family's attempt to flee Austria before the war

    Oral History

    Elizabeth and her family were in Paris when war began. As the Germans advanced in 1940, she and her mother fled southward. Elizabeth eventually reached Le Chambon, where she helped care for children sheltered by the town's pastor, Andre Trocme, and his wife. In late 1941 her father was among 1,000 intellectuals who received special US visas from President Franklin D. Roosevelt. The family escaped from France in 1942 on one of the last passenger ships to cross the Atlantic during the war.

    Tags: Austria escape
    Elizabeth Kaufmann Koenig describes her family's attempt to flee Austria before the war
  • Nazi Propaganda

    Article

    Nazi propaganda had a key role in the persecution of Jews. Learn more about how Hitler and the Nazi Party used propaganda to facilitate war and genocide.

    Nazi Propaganda
  • The Holocaust in Subcarpathian Rus and Southern Slovakia

    Article

    The Transcarpathian region of Ukraine is an area known historically as Subcarpathian Rus. Before World War I, Subcarpathian Rus was part of Hungary. In the interwar years it was part of Czechoslovakia. Hungarian Annexation of Subcarpathian Rus Hungary seized and annexed Subcarpathian Rus in 1939, in the wake of the dismemberment of Czechoslovakia. In the first ten days of August 1941, Hungarian authorities expelled about 18,000 Jews from Subcarpathian Rus into German-occupied Ukraine. Hungarian military…

  • Joseph Greenblatt

    Article

    Read the Jewish Partisan Educational Foundation's short biography of Joseph Greenblatt.

    Joseph Greenblatt
  • Sam Gruber (Jewish Partisan Educational Foundation biography)

    Article

    Read the Jewish Partisan Educational Foundation's short biography of Sam Gruber.

    Sam Gruber (Jewish Partisan Educational Foundation biography)
  • Nazi Imperialism: An Overview

    Article

    Introduction Some scholars have examined Nazi ideology and policies towards Eastern Europe within the context of imperialism and colonialism.  Imperialism is a state’s extension of power over lands or peoples beyond its borders, including through conquest, acquisition, or the extension of political or economic control. Colonialism is a form of imperialism in which a state establishes control over a territory by settling it with people from outside the territory. In the modern era, many states…

    Nazi Imperialism: An Overview
  • Eleanor Roosevelt: The Early Years

    Article

    Short biography of Eleanor Roosevelt, who would become the longest serving First Lady in US history.

  • France

    Article

    German policies varied from country to country, including direct, brutal occupation and reliance upon collaborating regimes. France was divided into occupied and unoccupied zones, with differing policies in each.&nb...

    France
  • Henry Morgenthau

    Article

    Henry Morgenthau Jr. (1891–1967) served as secretary of the treasury in the Roosevelt an...

  • Erika Eckstut

    Article

    Explore Erika Eckstut's biography and learn about the difficulties and dangers she faced in the Czernowitz ghetto.

  • Ruth Webber describes the bitterness that she felt after the end of the war when she was in an orphanage in Krakow

    Oral History

    Ruth was four years old when the Germans invaded Poland and occupied Ostrowiec. Her family was forced into a ghetto. Germans took over her father's photography business, although he was allowed to continue working outside the ghetto. Before the ghetto was liquidated, Ruth's parents sent her sister into hiding, and managed to get work at a labor camp outside the ghetto. Ruth also went into hiding, either in nearby woods or within the camp itself. When the camp was liquidated, Ruth's parents were split up.…

    Ruth Webber describes the bitterness that she felt after the end of the war when she was in an orphanage in Krakow
  • Ruth Webber describes the bitterness that she felt after the end of the war when she was in an orphanage in Krakow

    Oral History

    Ruth was four years old when the Germans invaded Poland and occupied Ostrowiec. Her family was forced into a ghetto. Germans took over her father's photography business, although he was allowed to continue working outside the ghetto. Before the ghetto was liquidated, Ruth's parents sent her sister into hiding, and managed to get work at a labor camp outside the ghetto. Ruth also went into hiding, either in nearby woods or within the camp itself. When the camp was liquidated, Ruth's parents were split up.…

    Ruth Webber describes the bitterness that she felt after the end of the war when she was in an orphanage in Krakow
  • Charlene Schiff describes her liberation by Soviet troops

    Oral History

    Both of Charlene's parents were local Jewish community leaders, and the family was active in community life. Charlene's father was a professor of philosophy at the State University of Lvov. World War II began with the German invasion of Poland on September 1, 1939. Charlene's town was in the part of eastern Poland occupied by the Soviet Union under the German-Soviet Pact of August 1939. Under the Soviet occupation, the family remained in its home and Charlene's father continued to teach. The Germans…

    Charlene Schiff describes her liberation by Soviet troops
  • Belle Mayer Zeck reflects upon people who have dedicated their lives to the cause of human rights

    Oral History

    Belle Mayer trained as a lawyer and worked for the General Counsel of the US Treasury, Foreign Funds Control Bureau. This bureau worked to enforce the Trading With the Enemy Act passed by Congress. In this capacity, Mayer became familiar with the German I. G. Farben chemical company, a large conglomerate that used slave labor during World War II. In 1945, Mayer was sent as a Department of Treasury representative to the postwar London Conference. She was present as representatives from the Allied nations…

    Belle Mayer Zeck reflects upon people who have dedicated their lives to the cause of human rights
  • Insignia of the 90th Infantry Division

    Photo

    Insignia of the 90th Infantry Division. Called the "Tough Ombres," the 90th Infantry Division was raised from draftees from the states of Texas and Oklahoma during World War I. The divisional insignia incorporates the letters "T" and "O" to symbolize both states. These letters later yielded the nickname "Tough Ombres," symbolizing the esprit de corps of the unit. The 90th was also sometimes called the "Alamo" division during World War II.

    Insignia of the 90th Infantry Division
  • Insignia of the 83rd Infantry Division

    Photo

    Insignia of the 83rd Infantry Division. The 83rd Infantry Division received its nickname, the "Thunderbolt" division, after a division-wide contest for a new nickname held in early 1945. The earlier nickname, "Ohio," was based on the division's insignia (which includes the name "Ohio," where the division was raised during World War I). A new nickname was desired to represent the nationwide origins of the division's personnel during World War II.

    Insignia of the 83rd Infantry Division

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