Oral History

Agnes Mandl Adachi describes Raoul Wallenberg's efforts to save Jews from deportation

Agnes was in Switzerland in 1939 to study French. She returned to Budapest in 1940. After the Germans occupied Hungary in 1944, Agnes was given refuge in the Swedish embassy. She then began to work for Swedish diplomat Raoul Wallenberg in his efforts to save the Jews of Budapest, including the distribution of protective passes (Schutzpaesse). When the Soviets entered Budapest, Agnes decided to go to Romania. After the war, she went to Sweden and Australia before moving to the United States.


Critical Thinking Questions

How do oral histories differ from other primary sources such as artifacts, documents, and photographs? What can we learn from different types of primary sources?

What other source materials might be helpful to provide more historical context for this eyewitness testimony? What aspects of the history might these other source materials help reveal?

What was the context of the Holocaust and World War II at the time of the events Agnes describes?

What questions does this eyewitness testimony raise for you?

Explore the Museum's website and Collections to learn more about Budapest and Raoul Wallenberg's rescue efforts.


  • US Holocaust Memorial Museum Collection
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