The Oath of Loyalty for All State Officials was one of a series of key decrees, legislative acts, and case law in the gradual process by which the Nazi leadership moved Germany from a democracy to a dictatorship.
Beginning in 1979, the Office of Special Investigations (OSI) opened hundreds of investigations and initiated proceedings of Nazi war criminals. These investigations lead to the denaturalization and/or removal of more than 100 Nazi offenders from the United States.Despite initial predictions that its work would soon be finished, OSI has been active for over 25 years.
The Ohrdruf camp was a subcamp of the Buchenwald concentration camp, and the first Nazi camp liberated by US troops. The year 2020 marked the 75th anniversary of the liberation of concentration camps by US forces and the end of Nazi tyranny in Europe.
The history of the Holocaust is more than indifference, destruction, and loss. It is also about survival, resistance, and courage. In the face of cruelty and danger, some people refused to be bystanders and acted, often paying with their lives. They affirmed life and honored humanity. Three such examples are highlighted below.
Approximately 42,000 Jews were killed during Operation "Harvest Festival" (Aktion "Erntefest"), which began at dawn on November 3, 1943.
In the fall of 1941, Nazi Germany implemented a plan to systematically murder the Jews in the General Government. This plan was codenamed “Operation Reinhard.” Three killing centers were established as part of this action: Belzec, Sobibor, and Treblinka. Operation Reinhard marked the deadliest phase of Nazi Germany’s intention to commit genocide against the Jewish people.
Millions of people suffered and died in camps, ghettos, and other sites during the Holocaust. The Nazis and their allies oversaw more than 44,000 camps, ghettos, and other sites of detention, persecution, forced labor, and murder. Among them was the Oranienburg camp.
During World War II, businessman Oskar Schindler rescued more than 1,000 Jews from deportation to Auschwitz, Nazi Germany's largest camp complex.
In 1933, Nazi students at more than 30 German universities pillaged libraries in search of books they considered to be "un-German." Among the literary and political writings they threw into the flames were the works of Otto Dix.
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