Alice Goldberger (1897-1986) was born in Berlin, Germany. Trained as a youth-work instructor, she ran a shelter for disadvantaged children and their families. When Hitler came to power, Alice, who was Jewish, had to give up her post. She immigrated to England in 1939. When war broke out, Alice was interned on the Isle of Man as an enemy alien. While there, she organized a children's facility. Hearing of Alice's work in the camp, psychoanalyst Anna Freud (daughter of Sigmund Freud) intervened to secure…
During the 1943 liquidation of the Lvov ghetto, dozens of Jews fled into the city sewers to escape death. Eight-year-old Krystyna Chiger (later Kristine Keren) hid with her family and 16 others beneath the city's streets for 14 months, during which she wore this sweater.
Yona Wygocka Dickmann fashioned this aluminum comb from airplane parts after the SS transferred her from Auschwitz to forced labor in an airplane factory in Freiburg, Germany, in November 1944. She used the comb as her hair, shaven in Auschwitz, began to grow back.
Two of Julien Bryan's Nazi Germany 1937 contact print booklets of still photographs organized by camera roll. Bryan used these prints to select and crop images for publication or distribution and annotated the covers.
Courtroom sketch by artist David Rose of Nobel laureate and Holocaust survivor Elie Wiesel on the witness stand at the trial of Klaus Barbie. During his testimony, Wiesel stated that "The killer kills twice. First, by killing, and then by trying to wipe out the traces." June 2, 1987.
Cover of a mimeographed program booklet distributed at the International Military Tribunal at Nuremberg.
German Jewish refugees purchased this Japanese-German phrase book shortly after their arrival in Japan. Japan, 1940-1941. [From the USHMM special exhibition Flight and Rescue.]
Stanislava Roztropowicz kept a diary from 1943-1944. In it, she describes her family's decision to hide an abandoned Jewish girl, Sabina Heller (Kagan). Sabina Kagan was an infant when SS mobile killing squads began rounding up Jews in her Polish village of Radziwillow in 1942. Her parents persuaded a local policeman to hide the family. The policeman, however, soon asked the Kagans to leave but agreed to hide baby Sabina. Her parents were captured and killed. Sabina was concealed in a dark basement,…
Entry pass to a US military dining hall at Dachau, Germany. This card was issued to Anton Litwin, a member of the War Crimes Branch.
Danish rescue boat used during World War II
Dedication to a set of scrapbooks compiled by Bjorn Sibbern, a Danish policeman and resistance member, documenting the German occupation of Denmark. Bjorn's wife Tove was also active in the Danish resistance. After World War II, Bjorn and Tove moved to Canada and later settled in California, where Bjorn compiled five scrapbooks dedicated to the Sibbern's daughter, Lisa. The books are fully annotated in English and contain photographs, documents and three-dimensional artifacts documenting all aspects of the…
Nazi Germany’s semi-official and fiercely antisemitic newspaper Der Stuermer warned of a Jewish program for world domination in this 1934 issue. The article, titled “Who is the Enemy?” blamed Jews for destroying social order and claimed that Jews wanted war, while the rest of the world wanted peace. Der Stuermer, July 1934.
These Torah scrolls, one from a synagogue in Vienna and the other from Marburg, were desecrated during Kristallnacht (the "Night of Broken Glass"), the violent anti-Jewish pogrom of November 9 and 10, 1938. The pogrom occurred throughout Germany, which by then included both Austria and the Sudetenland region of Czechoslovakia. The scrolls pictured here were retrieved by German individuals and safeguarded until after the war.
Zofia Burowska (Chorowicz) donated this doll, which dates from the 1930s, to the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum. Zofia's parents gave her the doll before the war and she kept it with her in the Wolbrum and Krakow ghettos, Poland. The doll and some of her family's other belongings were left with non-Jewish friends for safekeeping. Zofia was deported to a forced-labor camp for Jews near Krakow, to the Skarzysko-Kamienna camp (also in Poland), and then to the Buchenwald concentration camp in Germany,…
Jewish teenager Ava Hegedish drew this poignant picture of her mother's well-worn shoes while in hiding. It was drawn while Ava was in hiding at a farm near Belgrade, Yugoslavia (now Serbia), between 1941 and 1944. Once Nazi Germany and its Axis partners partitioned Yugoslavia and Belgrade fell under German control, Ava’s father thought the family’s best chance of survival was to separate and go into hiding. Ava ended up at a farm with some extended-family Serbian relatives. Because she…
A child's dress embroidered with red and blue flowers with small green leaves. This dress was hand embroidered by Lola Kaufman's mother in the Czortkow ghetto. Lola (born Lea Rein) wore this dress when she went into hiding. Lola was hidden first under a bed in the house of the woman who used to deliver milk to the family, then in a dugout under a cellar of a barn where she joined three other Jews in hiding. In March 1944, the Soviets liberated the area. The hidden Jews left their hideout in the middle of…
A blue and white child's dress worn by Sabina Kagan while living in hiding with the Roztropowicz family in Radziwillow, Poland, during World War II. Her rescuers used doll's clothing to make this dress. Sabina was just an infant when SS mobile killing squads began rounding up Jews in the Polish village of Radziwillow in 1942. Her parents persuaded a local policeman to hide the family. The policeman, however, soon asked the Kagans to leave but agreed to hide baby Sabina. Her parents were captured and…
Courtroom sketch drawn during the International Military Tribunal by American artist Edward Vebell. The drawing's title is "Spectators at War Criminals Trial, Nuremberg, Germany." 1945.
Courtroom sketch drawn during the International Military Tribunal by American artist Edward Vebell. The drawing's title is "British Courier for the Correspondents." 1945.
Courtroom sketch drawn during the International Military Tribunal by American artist Edward Vebell. The drawing's title is "German defense counsel -- they are immediately in front of the defendants." 1945.
Courtroom sketch drawn during the International Military Tribunal by American artist Edward Vebell. The drawing depicts defendants Rudolf Hess and Wilhelm Keitel, with this accompanying text: "Hess looked very hollow cheeked and thin necked. He seemed to ignore the proceedings and kept his head down, absorbed in a book. Keitel tried to retain a rigid military bearing and strike haughty poses." Nuremberg, Germany, 1945.
Courtroom sketch drawn during the International Military Tribunal by American artist Edward Vebell. The drawing's title is "A few studies of the German defense counsel." 1945.
Single-use entry pass for the trial of Adolf Eichmann in Jerusalem, Israel. June 8, 1961.
This election poster calls on Germans to vote in support of Hitler's hand-picked candidates to the Reichstag (the German parliament). The poster details Hitler's actions and reads, in part: 'In 8 months two and a quarter million Germans have work and bread again! Class warfare and its parties are eliminated! The Bolsheviks are smashed. Particularism is overcome! A Reich of order and cleanliness is established. One People. One Reich. One Leader. This is what Hitler has accomplished..."
Election poster reading "The People Vote Listing One: Nationalsocialism," 1932-1933
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