In 1941, the Nazis established Janowska camp. It was primarily used as a forced-labor and transit camp.
In 1939, the French government established the Gurs camp. Learn more about the history of the camp before and after the German invasion of France.
Germany invaded Poland on September 1, 1939. Learn about the administrative units that Germany established after annexing and occupying parts of prewar Poland.
Originally a subcamp of Buchenwald, Dora-Mittelbau became the center of an extensive network of forced-labor camps for the production of V-2 missiles and other weapons.
Learn more about Greece during World War II.
By September 1939, over half of German Jews had emigrated. WWII would accelerate the persecution, deportation, and later, mass murder, of the remainder of Germany's Jews.
Learn about France during the Holocaust and WWII, the liberation of France, postwar trials, and the legacy of Vichy France’s collaboration with Nazi Germany.
A relief organization, the American Jewish Joint Distribution Committee (JDC or Joint) was established in 1914. Learn about its activities before, during, and after WWII.
The Nazis used color-coded badges sewn onto uniforms to classify prisoners in the camp system and to easily identify the alleged reason for an individual’s incarceration.
In May 1939, the St. Louis set sail from Germany to Cuba. Most of the passengers, fleeing Nazi Germany, were denied entry. Learn more about their fates.
For centuries, Roma (labeled “Gypsies”) were scorned across Europe. Read more about Romani peoples, including the Sinti, and their lives in Europe.
Under the most adverse conditions, Jewish prisoners initiated resistance and uprisings in some of the ghettos and camps, including Bialystok, Warsaw, Treblinka, and Sobibor.
Learn about the voyage and sinking of the Struma, an overcrowded and unsafe vessel carrying Jews attempting to leave Europe for Palestine in 1941-42.
Cultural and educational activities, clandestine documentation and religious observances. Learn more about these and other types of spiritual resistance in ghettos in Nazi-occupied areas.
Brihah was a postwar, clandestine movement that helped Jews emigrate from eastern Europe into the Allied-occupied zones and Palestine or Israel. Learn more.
Learn about the establishment and administration of displaced persons camps after WWII and the experiences of Jewish DPs.
The plight of Jewish refugees aboard the Exodus 1947 captured the world's attention and symbolized the struggle for unrestricted immigration into Palestine.
The Germans established the Breendonk internment camp in a fortress near Antwerp, Belgium. Hundreds of people died there by torture, executions, and harsh conditions.
The Theresienstadt camp/ghetto served multiple purposes during its existence from 1941-45 and had an important propaganda function for the Germans. Learn more.
The Germans conquered Belgium in May 1940. Learn about the occupation, anti-Jewish laws and ordinances, detention camps, and deportations of Jews from Belgium.
Learn about Amsterdam during World War II and the Holocaust, including deportations of Jews to concentration camps and killing centers.
Blitzkrieg, meaning "Lightning War" in German, was Germany’s strategy to avoid a long war in the first phase of World War II in Europe.
Adolf Hitler was determined to overturn the military and territorial provisions of the Treaty of Versailles. Learn more about Nazi German territorial aggression before WWII.
Learn about a group of Jewish men and women from Palestine who parachuted into German-occupied Europe to organize resistance and aid in the rescue of Allied personnel
Facing overwhelming odds, Jews throughout occupied Europe attempted armed resistance against the Germans and their Axis partners.
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