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Sergeant Alexander Drabik, the first American soldier to cross the bridge at Remagen, receiving the Distinguished Service Cross for his heroism. April 5, 1945. US Army Signal Corps photograph taken by J Malan Heslop.
Sack of wood flour (finely powdered wood or sawdust) used to make substitute bread. The official ration of this "bread" for Soviet prisoners of war was less than 5 ounces a day. Deblin, Poland, 1942 or 1943.
General Dwight D. Eisenhower visits with paratroopers of the 101st Airborne Division just hours before their jump into German-occupied France (D-Day). June 5, 1944.
Soviet and Polish prisoners with disabilities stand in front of a tank of the 11th Armored Division, US Third Army. This photograph was taken at the Mauthausen concentration camp immediately after liberation. Austria, May 5–7, 1945.
A member of the Zoska battalion of the Armia Krajowa escorts two of 348 Jews liberated from the Gęsiówka concentration camp during the Warsaw Polish uprising. August 5, 1944.
The Jewish children of Lodz suffered harsh conditions after the German invasion of Poland. Read excerpts from diaries where they recorded their experiences.
Under the Vichy regime, the Les Milles camp held foreign Jews before emigration or, in most cases, deportation to German concentration camps and killing centers.
The Berlin-Marzahn camp was established a few miles from Berlin's city center, for the detention of Roma, on the eve of the 1936 summer Olympics.
Gleichschaltung is the German term applied to the Nazification of all aspects of German society following the Nazi rise to power in 1933.
The Burmese military has targeted the Rohingya people because of their ethnic and religious identity. The military’s actions constitute genocide and crimes against humanity. Learn more
The elder of two sons of religious German-Jewish parents, Siegfried grew up in the city of Frankfurt. Upon completing his education, he became a certified public accountant in Frankfurt. In his free time he worked as a freelance music critic. While on a vacation in 1932 on the North Sea island of Norderney, he met Herta Katz, a young woman with whom he quickly fell in love. 1933-39: The Nazis had fired Siegfried from his government job because he was Jewish. Although his mother opposed the match,…
Lucien was the fourth of eight children born to poor Catholic parents in a small town in northwestern France. Lucien began his seminary studies in nearby Rouen at the age of 12. Following two years of military service, he resumed his religious studies in 1922 and was ordained as a priest three years later. He joined the Carmelite religious order in 1931, and became Father Jacques. 1933-39: In 1934 Father Jacques moved to the town of Avon, where he established a boys' school,…
Leopold was a teacher in Krakow, Poland, when World War II began in 1939. While serving in the Polish army, he was captured by Germans. Leopold escaped from a prisoner-of-war transport. Soon after, he met the German industrialist Oskar Schindler. The two became friends. Leopold was forced to live in the Krakow ghetto. He later worked in Schindler's factory in Bruennlitz. He and the other Jews who worked there were treated relatively well and protected from the Nazis. After the war, Leopold moved to the…
The 11th Armored Division participated in major WWII campaigns and is recognized for liberating Mauthausen and Gusen in 1945.
Jews were the main targets of Nazi genocide. Learn about other individuals from a broad range of backgrounds who were imprisoned in the Nazi camp system.
The Milch Case was Case #2 of 12 Subsequent Nuremberg Proceedings against leading German industrialists, military figures, SS perpetrators, and others.
The Supreme Court Decision on the Nuremberg Race Laws was one of a series of key decrees, legi...
After WWII, many Holocaust survivors, unable to return to their homes, lived in displaced persons camps in Germany, Austria, and Italy. Read about Heidenheim DP camp.
Policemen stand outside the shuttered Eldorado nightclub, long frequented by Berlin's gay and lesbian community. The Nazi government quickly closed the establishment down and pasted pro-Nazi election posters on the building. Berlin, Germany, March 5, 1933. Learn more about this photograph.
View of the wall surrounding the cemetery of the Hadamar euthanasia killing center. Jagged pieces of glass were placed on the wall to discourage observers. This photograph was taken by an American military photographer soon after the liberation of Hadamar. Germany, April 5, 1945.
Four days after the outbreak of World War II, Secretary of State Cordell Hull signs the Neutrality Proclamation (first signed by President Franklin D. Roosevelt) at the State Department. Washington, DC, United States, September 5, 1939.
German children read an anti-Jewish propaganda book for children titled Der Giftpilz (The Poisonous Mushroom). The girl on the left holds a companion volume, the translated title of which is "Trust No Fox." Germany, ca. 1938. (Source record ID: E39 Nr .2381/5)
Some of the nursing staff of the "euthanasia" clinic at Hadamar stand outside of the institution after the arrival of US forces, April 5, 1945. Irmgard Huber, the head nurse of the clinic, is probably the person standing fifth from the right. © IWM EA 62183
Photograph of Regina (Renia) taken on June 2, 1945, in Lodz, Poland.
Listing of the 24 leading Nazi officials indicted at the International Military Tribunal at Nuremberg. Learn about the defendants and the charges against them.
Affidavit signed by Rudolf Hoess attesting to the gassing of Jews while he was the commandant of the Auschwitz killing center. The German text reads: "I declare herewith under oath that in the years 1941 to 1943 during my tenure in office as commandant of Auschwitz Concentration Camp 2 million Jews were put to death by gassing and a 1/2 million by other means. Rudolf Hoess. May 14, 1946." The confession is also signed by Josef Maier of the US Chief of Counsel's office. A photoreproduction of the original…
[This video is silent] Olympic athlete Jesse Owens won four medals at the 1936 Olympic Games in Berlin, Germany: 100-meter dash, gold200-meter dash, goldBroad (long) jump, gold4x100-meter relay, gold This footage shows Owens winning the 100-meter dash in a time of 10.3 seconds. Owens was one of the 18 African Americans (16 men and 2 women) who competed in the 1936 Olympic Games in Berlin. These athletes brought home 14 medals: 8 gold; 4 silver; and 2 bronze.
Election poster reading "We workers have awakened: We’re voting National Socialist List 2 ," 1932.
A mass marriage of 50 couples in Berlin. All of the couples belonged to the Nazi Party. Berlin, Germany, July 2, 1933.
Conscripts of Hungarian Labor Service Company VIII/2 at work laying railroad track. Huszt, Hungary, 1942.
Jewish child Hans van den Broeke (born Hans Culp) in hiding in the Netherlands. He is 2 years old in this photograph.
Entrance to the courtyard, marked with a Star of David, of a building designated for Jews. Budapest, Hungary, after April 2, 1944.
In March 1942, the Hodonin camp was classified as a camp for Roma. It was a transfer station during deportation to Auschwitz-Birkenau. Learn about the camp and its history.
The National Socialist German Worker’s Party, also known as the Nazi Party, was the far-right racist and antisemitic political party led by Adolf Hitler.
Explore a timeline of key events in the history of the Sobibor killing center in the General Government, the German-administered territory of occupied Poland.
Hundreds of laws, decrees, guidelines, and regulations increasingly restricted the civil and human rights of Jews in Germany from 1933-39. Learn more.
During the Holocaust, the creation of ghettos was a key step in the Nazi process of ultimately destroying Europe's Jews. Learn about the Vilna ghetto.
Killing Center Revolts The Warsaw ghetto uprising inspired revolts in other ghettos and in killing centers. Although many resisters knew they were bound to lose against overwhelmingly superior German forces, they chose to die fighting. After the last Jews deported to Treblinka were gassed in May 1943, about 1,000 Jewish prisoners remained in the camp. Aware that they were soon to be killed, the prisoners decided to revolt. On August 2, armed with shovels, picks, and a few weapons stolen from the arms…
Passengers on the St. Louis wait to hear whether the Cuban government will permit them to land. Havana, Cuba, between May 27 and June 2, 1939.
Displaced Iraqis wait for food distribution at an internally displaced persons (IDP) camp on the outskirts of Erbil, Iraqi Kurdistan. September 2, 2015.
Aerial photograph showing the gas chambers and crematoria 2 and 3 at the Auschwitz-Birkenau (Auschwitz II) killing center. Auschwitz, Poland, August 25, 1944.
Austrian Jewish refugee children, members of one of the Children's Transports (Kindertransport), arrive at a London train station. Great Britain, February 2, 1939.
Jewish refugee children, part of a Children's Transport (Kindertransport) from Germany, soon after arriving in Harwich. Great Britain, December 2, 1938.
Read an excerpt from Izak Lichtenstein’s 1947 testimony about the resistance movement in the Lachva (Lachwa) ghetto.
Key dates associated with Hajj Amin al-Husayni, former Mufti of Jerusalem who participated in a pro-Axis coup in Iraq in 1941. Explore further
One of the milk cans used by Warsaw ghetto historian Emanuel Ringelblum to store and preserve the secret "Oneg Shabbat" ghetto archives.This milk can, identified as no. 2, was unearthed at 58 Nowolipki Street in Warsaw on December 1, 1950.
Under the most adverse conditions, Jewish prisoners initiated uprisings in some camps and killing centers. On August 2, 1943, about 1,000 Jewish inmates revolted in Treblinka.
This piece was written in Krakow on October 2, 1940. Mordecai Gebirtig wrote this song to raise the spirits of the persecuted Jewish community in Krakow. The poet's reference to "Haman" alludes to the ancient Persian enemy of the Jewish people.
Five Jewish survivors pose for a US Signal Corps photographer in front of Block 2 in the Hanover-Ahlem camp, a subcamp of Neuengamme. Hanover-Ahlem, Germany, April 11, 1945.
Members of the US 9th Armored Division meet up with Soviet units near Linz, Austria. This photograph was taken by US Army Signal Corps photographer Arnold E. Samuelson. Austria, May 2, 1945.
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