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  • Bernard Musmand

    Article

    Despite great obstacles, Jews throughout occupied Europe attempted armed resistance against the Germans and their Axis partners. They faced overwhelming odds and desperate scenarios, including lack of weapons and training, operating in hostile zones, parting from family members, and facing an ever-present Nazi terror. Yet thousands resisted by joining or forming partisan units. Among them was Bernard Musmand. 

    Bernard Musmand
  • Bertolt Brecht

    Article

    In 1933, Nazi students at more than 30 German universities pillaged libraries in search of books they considered to be "un-German." Among the literary and political writings they threw into the flames were the works of Bertolt Brecht. 

    Bertolt Brecht
  • Bialystok
  • Blechhammer

    Article

    Millions of people suffered and died in camps, ghettos, and other sites during the Holocaust. The Nazis and their allies oversaw more than 44,000 camps, ghettos, and other sites of detention, persecution, forced labor, and murder. Among them was the Blechhammer subcamp of Auschwitz. 

  • Blitzkrieg (Lightning War)
  • Blood Libel

    Article

    The term blood libel refers to the false allegation that Jews used the blood of non-Jewish, usually Christian children, for ritual purposes. The Nazis made effective use of the blood libel to demonize Jews, with Julius Steicher's newspaper Der Stürmer making frequent use of ritual murder imagery in its antisemitic propaganda.

    Blood Libel
  • Book Burning

    Article

    Beginning on May 10, 1933, Nazi-dominated student groups carried out public burnings of books they claimed were “un-German.” The book burnings took place in 34 university towns and cities. Works of prominent Jewish, liberal, and leftist writers ended up in the bonfires. The book burnings stood as a powerful symbol of Nazi intolerance and censorship.

    Book Burning
  • Bosnia

    Article

    During the conflict in Bosnia from 1992 to 1995, an estimated 100,000 people were killed. Approximately 80 percent of the civilians killed were Bosnian Muslims, known as Bosniaks.

    Bosnia
  • Boycott of Jewish Businesses

    Article

    After Adolf Hitler came to power in Germany on January 30, 1933, the Nazi leadership decided to stage an economic boycott against the Jews of Germany. Local Nazi party chiefs organized the national boycott operation. Although it lasted only one day and was ignored by many individual Germans who continued to shop in Jewish-owned stores, it marked the beginning of a nationwide campaign by the Nazi Party against the entire German Jewish population.

    Boycott of Jewish Businesses
  • Breckinridge Long

    Article

    Samuel Breckinridge Long was an Assistant Secretary in the US State Department during World War II, from 1940–1944. Many of the policies implemented by the State Department’s Visa Division, which Long supervised, slowed immigration to the United States for the hundreds of thousands of refugees attempting to escape persecution and murder by Nazi Germany.

    Breckinridge Long
  • Breendonk
  • Bremen-Farge

    Article

    Millions of people suffered and died in camps, ghettos, and other sites during the Holocaust. The Nazis and their allies oversaw more than 44,000 camps, ghettos, and other sites of detention, persecution, forced labor, and murder. Among them was the Bremen-Farge subcamp of Neuengamme.

  • Brenda Senders

    Article

    Despite great obstacles, Jews throughout occupied Europe attempted armed resistance against the Germans and their Axis partners. They faced overwhelming odds and desperate scenarios, including lack of weapons and training, operating in hostile zones, parting from family members, and facing an ever-present Nazi terror. Yet thousands resisted by joining or forming partisan units. Among them was Brenda Senders. 

    Brenda Senders
  • Brihah
  • Buchenwald

    Article

    Between 1933 and 1945, Nazi Germany and its allies established more than 44,000 camps and other incarceration sites (including ghettos). The perpetrators used these locations for a range of purposes, including forced labor, detention of people deemed to be "enemies of the state," and mass murder. Millions of people suffered and died or were killed. Among these sites was the Buchenwald camp near the city of Weimar.

    Buchenwald
  • Budapest
  • Building the Courtroom, Building the Case
  • Bulgaria
  • Bystanders

    Article

    Dictionaries define “bystander” as “a witness to events,” “one who is present but not taking part in what is occurring.”

    Bystanders
  • Börgermoor Camp

    Article

    Millions of people suffered and died in camps, ghettos, and other sites during the Holocaust. The Nazis and their allies oversaw more than 44,000 camps, ghettos, and other sites of detention, persecution, forced labor, and murder. Among them was the Börgermoor camp.

  • Capture of the Bridge at Remagen

    Article

    The capture of the bridge at Remagen was an important milestone for American forces, permitting the Allies to transport troops and tanks across the Rhine River into the heartland of Nazi Germany. 

    Capture of the Bridge at Remagen
  • Carl Clauberg
  • Carl von Ossietzky

    Article

    In 1933, Nazi students at more than 30 German universities pillaged libraries in search of books they considered to be "un-German." Among the literary and political writings they threw into the flames were the works of Carl von Ossietzky.

  • Chaim Benzion Cale

    Article

    The Jewish children of Lodz suffered unfolding harsh realities after the German invasion of Poland. Some of the children, among them Chaim Benzion Cale, recorded their experiences in diaries. Their voices offer a view into the struggle of a community and its young to live in spite of the most difficult circumstances.

    Chaim Benzion Cale

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