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  • The Wannsee Conference and the "Final Solution"

    Article

    The Wannsee Conference was a high-level meeting of Nazi Party and German State officials to coordinate “the Final Solution of the Jewish Question.” Learn more.

    The Wannsee Conference and the "Final Solution"
  • Western Desert Campaign: Egypt and Libya

    Article

    Learn more about the Western Desert campaign during World War II in Egypt and Libya between 1940-1943.

    Western Desert Campaign: Egypt and Libya
  • Timeline of the German Military and the Nazi Regime

    Article

    Key dates illustrating the relationship between Germany’s professional military elite and the Nazi state, and the German military’s role in the Holocaust.

    Timeline of the German Military and the Nazi Regime
  • Sandor (Shony) Alex Braun describes playing the violin for SS guards in Dachau. after two prisoners before him had been killed

    Oral History

    Shony was born to religious Jewish parents in a small Transylvanian city. He began to learn the violin at age 5. His town was occupied by Hungary in 1940 and by Germany in 1944. In May 1944, he was deported to the Auschwitz camp in Poland. He was transferred to the Natzweiler camp system in France and then to Dachau, where he was liberated by US troops in April 1945. In 1950, he immigrated to the United States, and became a composer and a professional violinist.

    Tags: music Dachau
    Sandor (Shony) Alex Braun describes playing the violin for SS guards in Dachau. after two prisoners before him had been killed
  • 1941: Key Dates

    Article

    Explore a timeline of key events during 1941 in the history of Nazi Germany, World War II, and the Holocaust.

    Tags: key dates
    1941: Key Dates
  • Zdziecioł (Zhetel)

    Article

    The Nazis occupied Zdziecioł (Zhetel), Poland in 1941. Learn more about the city and ghetto during World War II.

  • Mir

    Article

    The Mir ghetto was established in Mir, Poland in 1941. Learn more about life and resistance in the ghetto.

    Mir
  • Berga-Elster ("Schwalbe V")

    Article

    At the Berga-Elster subcamp of Buchenwald, prisoners were forced to do dangerous and brutal work in tunnels to support fuel production for the German war effort.

  • Lackenbach (Roma internment and transit camp)

    Article

    The Lackenbach internment and transit camp for Roma, located in what had been eastern Austria, was a departure point for deportations to Lodz and Auschwitz.

  • Operation Reinhard (Einsatz Reinhard)

    Article

    Nazi Germany established the killing centers of Belzec, Sobibor, and Treblinka as part of “Operation Reinhard,” the plan to murder all Jews in the General Government.

    Operation Reinhard (Einsatz Reinhard)
  • Hans Vogel's diary entry on boarding the refugee ship Nyassa

    Artifact

    Hans Vogel and his family fled Paris following the German invasion. They eventually received papers allowing them to immigrate to the United States. During this time, Hans kept a diary that contains postcards, hand-drawn maps, and other illustrations of their flight. This page describes the lead-up to their departure for the United States, from Lisbon, on the Nyassa. Hans was born in Cologne, Germany on December 3, 1926. The family left Germany in 1936, settling in Paris. They remained there until the…

    Hans Vogel's diary entry on boarding the refugee ship Nyassa
  • Hans Vogel's diary entry about receiving US immigration papers

    Artifact

    Diaries reveal some of the most intimate, heart-wrenching accounts of the Holocaust. They record in real time the feelings of loss, fear, and, sometimes, hope of those facing extraordinary peril. The diary of Hans Vogel, who fled Paris with his family while his father was interned, contains hand-drawn and colored maps of their flight. This page describes receiving papers allowing the family to immigrate to the United States.  Hans was born in Cologne, Germany on December 3, 1926. The family left Germany…

    Hans Vogel's diary entry about receiving US immigration papers
  • Hans Vogel's diary entry describing the voyage to the United States

    Artifact

    Hans Vogel and his family fled Paris following the German invasion. They eventually received papers allowing them to immigrate to the United States. During this time, Hans kept a diary that contains postcards, hand-drawn maps, and other illustrations of their flight. This page describes the voyage on board the Nyassa to the United States.  Hans was born in Cologne, Germany on December 3, 1926. The family left Germany in 1936, settling in Paris. They remained there until the outbreak of World War II.…

    Hans Vogel's diary entry describing the voyage to the United States
  • Hans Vogel's diary entry on arriving in New York

    Artifact

    Hans Vogel and his family fled Paris following the German invasion. They eventually received papers allowing them to immigrate to the United States. During this time, Hans kept a diary that contains postcards, hand-drawn maps, and other illustrations of their flight. This page describes arriving in New York.  Hans was born in Cologne, Germany on December 3, 1926. The family left Germany in 1936, settling in Paris. They remained there until the outbreak of World War II. Hans's father, Simon, was interned…

    Hans Vogel's diary entry on arriving in New York
  • Tomas Kulka

    ID Card

    Tomas' parents were Jewish. His father, Robert Kulka, was a businessman from the Moravian town of Olomouc. His mother, Elsa Skutezka, was a milliner from Brno, the capital of Moravia. The couple was well-educated and spoke both Czech and German. They married in 1933 and settled in Robert's hometown of Olomouc. 1933-39: Tomas was born a year and a day after his parents were married. When Tomas was 3, his grandfather passed away and the Kulkas moved to Brno, which was his mother's hometown. On March 15,…

    Tomas Kulka
  • Marcus Fass

    ID Card

    Marcus, known to his family as Moniek, was one of three children born to a Jewish family in the Polish town of Ulanow. His father worked as a tailor. Ulanow's Jewish community had many of its own organizations and maintained a large library. From the age of 3, Moniek attended a religious school. He started public school when he was 7. 1933-39: In 1935 Moniek's father left for America to find a job so that his family could later join him. He sent money to them while they waited for their emigration papers.…

    Marcus Fass
  • Henry Maslowicz

    ID Card

    Henry's Jewish parents lived in a Polish town in which their families had lived for 150 years. The Jewish community enjoyed good relations with their Polish neighbors; the local Polish population refused to cooperate when the government encouraged a boycott of Jewish businesses during a wave of antisemitism that swept Poland in the mid-1930s. 1933-39: In the years before Henry was born, his father owned an iron and coal factory. The Germans occupied Wierzbnik on September 5, 1939. While some Jews fled,…

    Henry Maslowicz
  • Lea Ofner-Szemere

    ID Card

    Lea was born in the city of Sombor in northeastern Yugoslavia. When she was 3 years old, her parents divorced and she moved to Vienna with her mother, who taught English and French to Austrian children. Lea enjoyed living in Vienna as a child. 1933-39: Lea returned to Sombor almost every year to visit her mother's relatives. There, she became reacquainted with her younger half-sister, Julia, and her older half-brother, Francis, and would miss them when she returned to Vienna. In 1938, the Germans annexed…

    Lea Ofner-Szemere
  • Barbara Nemeth Balint

    ID Card

    Barbara was born to a middle-class Jewish family in southeast Hungary. Her father had a store that carried grocery and hardware items. Barbara had a sister named Margit and a brother named Desider. In 1928 Barbara married Istvan Geroe and moved to the town of Torokszentmiklos. Her son, Janos, was born there a year later. 1933-39: In 1933 Barbara divorced and returned with 3-year-old Janos to her parents' home in the town of Szentes. She helped run her parents' store, which was located on a busy inter-city…

    Barbara Nemeth Balint
  • Anti-Jewish Boycott

    Timeline Event

    April 1, 1933. On this date, the Nazi Party and its affiliates organized a nationwide boycott of Jewish-owned businesses in Germany.

    Anti-Jewish Boycott
  • German Invasion of Poland

    Timeline Event

    September 1, 1939. On this date, Germany invaded Poland and initiated World War II in Europe.

    German Invasion of Poland
  • Operation Harvest Festival

    Timeline Event

    November 3, 1943. On this date, SS and police units implemented "Operation Harvest Festival" (also known as Aktion Erntefest).

    Operation Harvest Festival
  • Sally Pitluk describes her removal from forced labor at Budy

    Oral History

    Sally Pitluk was born to Jewish parents in Płońsk, Poland in 1922. A few days after the German invasion of Poland in 1939, Płońsk was occupied. Sally and her family lived in a ghetto from 1940-1942. In October of 1942, Sally was transported to Auschwitz, where she was tattooed and moved into the subcamp Budy for forced labor. She stayed in the Auschwitz camp complex until the beginning of 1945 when she and other prisoners were death marched to several different camps. She was liberated in 1945 and…

    Sally Pitluk describes her removal from forced labor at Budy
  • Bergen-Belsen: Key Dates

    Article

    Explore a timeline of the history of the Bergen-Belsen camp in the Nazi camp system. Initially a POW camp, it became a concentration camp in 1943.

    Bergen-Belsen: Key Dates
  • The Survivors

    Article

    Survivors faced huge obstacles in rebuilding their lives after the devastation of the Holocaust years. Learn about some of the challenges they faced.

    The Survivors

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