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  • "Nuremberg: Its Lesson for Today"

    Film

    This footage comes from "Nuremberg, Its Lesson for Today" a 1947 documentary film produced by the US military's Documentary Film Unit, Information Services Division. The film, directed by Pare Lorentz and Stuart Schulberg, shows footage from the trial of Nazi war criminals by the International Military Tribunal. It also intermixes historical footage depicting the founding of the Nazi state, the unleashing of World War II, and Nazi crimes against humanity. The sentencing sequence shown here illustrates the incorporation of film clips used as evidence during the Nuremberg trial.

    "Nuremberg: Its Lesson for Today"
  • "St. Louis" arrives in Antwerp

    Film

    The German ship SS "St. Louis" departed from Hamburg for Cuba with almost 1,000 Jewish refugees on board on May 13, 1939. Most of the passengers had Cuban landing certificates. However, the Cuban government invalidated the certificates. When the "St. Louis" reached Havana on May 27, most of its passengers were denied entry. After the United States also refused to accept the refugees, the ship returned to Europe, docking at Antwerp. Britain, France, Belgium, and the Netherlands then agreed to accept the refugees. [From Hearst Metrotone News]

    "St. Louis" arrives in Antwerp
  • "The Nazi Plan": Annihilation of Jews

    Film

    The film "The Nazi Plan" was shown as evidence at the International Military Tribunal in Nuremberg on December 11, 1945. It was compiled for the trial by Budd Schulberg and other US military personnel, under the supervision of Navy Commander James Donovan. The compilers used only German source material, including official newsreels. This footage titled "Hitler Predicts Annihilation of the Jewish Race in Europe if War Occurs" shows Hitler delivering a speech to the German parliament on January 30, 1939.

    "The Nazi Plan": Annihilation of Jews
  • "The Nazi Plan": Antisemitic Campaign

    Film

    [This video is silent]

    The film "The Nazi Plan" was shown as evidence at the International Military Tribunal in Nuremberg on December 11, 1945. It was compiled for the trial by Budd Schulberg and other US military personnel, under the supervision of Navy Commander James Donovan. The compilers used only German source material, including official newsreels. This footage is titled "Opening of the Official Anti-Semitic Campaign 1 April 1933."

    "The Nazi Plan": Antisemitic Campaign
  • "The Nazi Plan": Book Burning

    Film

    The film "The Nazi Plan" was shown as evidence at the International Military Tribunal in Nuremberg on December 11, 1945. It was compiled for the trial by Budd Schulberg and other US military personnel, under the supervision of Navy Commander James Donovan. The compilers used only German source material, including official newsreels. This footage is titled "The Burning of the Books, 10 May 1933."

    "The Nazi Plan": Book Burning
  • "The Nazi Plan": Hitler's Inner Circle

    Film

    The film "The Nazi Plan" was shown as evidence at the International Military Tribunal in Nuremberg on December 11, 1945. It was compiled for the trial by Budd Schulberg and other US military personnel, under the supervision of Navy Commander James Donovan. The compilers used only German source material, including official newsreels. This footage titled "Conferences After Hitler's Escape from Bombing Plot, 20 July 1944" was used by Nuremberg prosecutors to show that the IMT defendants were among Hitler's closest advisors.

    "The Nazi Plan": Hitler's Inner Circle
  • "The Nazi Plan": Seventh Party Congress, 1935

    Film

    The film "The Nazi Plan" was shown as evidence at the International Military Tribunal in Nuremberg on December 11, 1945. It was compiled for the trial by Budd Schulberg and other US military personnel, under the supervision of Navy Commander James Donovan. The compilers used only German source material, including official newsreels. In this footage titled "Seventh Party Congress 10–16 September 1935," Hermann Göring announces restrictive racial laws.

    "The Nazi Plan": Seventh Party Congress, 1935
  • 100-meter race at the Olympic Games in Berlin, 1936

    Film

    [This video is silent]

    Olympic athlete Jesse Owens won four medals at the 1936 Olympic Games in Berlin, Germany:

    100-meter dash, gold
    200-meter dash, gold
    Broad (long) jump, gold
    4x100-meter relay, gold

    This footage shows Owens winning the 100-meter dash in a time of 10.3 seconds. Owens was one of the 18 African Americans (16 men and 2 women) who competed in the 1936 Olympic Games in Berlin. These athletes brought home 14 medals: 8 gold; 4 silver; and 2 bronze.

    100-meter race at the Olympic Games in Berlin, 1936
  • Adam Czerniakow, chairman of the Jewish council in Warsaw

    Film

    [This video is silent]

    German forces entered Warsaw in September 1939. The next month, they ordered the establishment of a Jewish council (Judenrat) in the city. They chose Adam Czerniakow, a member of Warsaw's old Jewish Community Council, to lead it. Here, for German newsreels, a German propaganda company stages a meeting between Czerniakow and petitioners from the ghetto. The Germans expected Czerniakow to implement German orders, including demands for forced labor and confiscations of Jewish-owned property. Czerniakow himself sought to ease the brutality of German measures, establishing food kitchens, workshops, and vocational schools. He constantly pleaded for better conditions. He committed suicide in July 1942 rather than comply with German demands that he help in the roundup of Jews destined for deportation.

    Adam Czerniakow, chairman of the Jewish council in Warsaw
  • Aerial view of Dachau concentration camp

    Film

    [This video is silent]

    The Dachau concentration camp, northwest of Munich, Germany, was the first regular concentration camp the Nazis established in 1933. About twelve years later, on April 29, 1945, US armed forces liberated the camp. There were some 30,000 starving prisoners in the camp at the time. This footage shows an aerial view of the camp and the entrance gate to the prisoner compound.

     

    Aerial view of Dachau concentration camp
  • Aftermath of battle in Danzig

    Film

    The Treaty of Versailles, imposed on Germany following its defeat in World War I, declared Danzig to be a free city jointly administered by Poland and the League of Nations. Germany bitterly resented the loss of this largely German city, which was also an important port on the Baltic Sea. The return of Danzig to Germany became a central focus of Adolf Hitler's foreign policy. Germany invaded Poland in September 1939. After the invasion of Poland, Germany unilaterally annexed Danzig. This German newsreel footage shows cheering crowds welcoming German forces into the city.

    Aftermath of battle in Danzig
  • Aftermath of pogrom in Kielce

    Film

    A pogrom took place in Kielce, Poland, in July 1946. Forty-two Jews were massacred and about 50 more were wounded. The event touched off a mass migration of hundreds of thousands of Jews from Poland and other countries of eastern and central Europe. This clip shows Jewish refugees, survivors of the pogrom, waiting to leave Poland and crossing into Czechoslovakia.

    Aftermath of pogrom in Kielce
  • Aftermath of the liberation of a forced-labor camp in Germany

    Film

    [This video is silent]

    There were three large forced-labor camps in Hannover, a large industrial city in northern Germany. All three of the camps were part of the Neuengamme concentration camp system. In early April 1945, American forces entered Hannover and freed the surviving prisoners. The American Signal Corps filmed one of the Hannover camps soon after liberation. American forces fed survivors of the camp and required German civilians to help bury the dead.

    Aftermath of the liberation of a forced-labor camp in Germany
  • Agreement Reached at Munich Conference

    Film

    [This video is silent]

    An agreement signed at the Munich conference of September 1938 ceded the German-speaking Sudetenland region of Czechoslovakia to Germany. The agreement was reached between Germany, Italy, Britain, and France. Czechoslovakia was not permitted to attend the conference. In March 1939, six months after signing the Munich agreement, Hitler violated the agreement and destroyed the Czech state.

    Agreement Reached at Munich Conference
  • Air raid shelter in London during the Blitz

    Film

    After the defeat of France in June 1940, Germany moved to gain air superiority over Great Britain as a prelude to an invasion of Britain. During almost nightly German air raids (known as "the Blitz") on London, the civilian population of the city sought refuge--as shown in this footage--in air raid shelters and in London's subway system (called the "Underground" or the "Tube"). Despite months of air attacks, Germany was not able to destroy Britain's Royal Air Force (RAF). In the fall of 1940, the invasion was indefinitely postponed. The German bombing campaign against Britain continued until May 1941. The Germans ultimately halted the air attacks primarily because of preparations for the invasion of the Soviet Union in June 1941.

    Air raid shelter in London during the Blitz
  • Air war in Flanders: Western Campaign

    Film

    The Junkers (Ju) 87, known as the "Stuka," spearheaded the Blitzkrieg ("lightning war") attacks that were decisive in the western campaign in 1940. Stuka dive-bombers closely supported German forces on the ground. They destroyed enemy strong points, aircraft, and airfields, and spread panic in rear areas. Although slow and easily shot down by Allied fighters, the Stukas proved devastatingly effective in the German invasions of Poland and western Europe, where Germany enjoyed air superiority. Stuka dive-bombers caused terror among Allied ground forces, who came to recognize the telltale shriek of a bomber's dive. This German newsreel footage shows (from both the air and the ground) destruction caused by Stuka attacks during the western campaign in Flanders.

    Air war in Flanders: Western Campaign
  • Albert Speer makes final statement at trial

    Film

    Defendant Albert Speer making his closing statement in the Nuremberg courtroom.

    Albert Speer makes final statement at trial
  • Albert Speer sworn in at Nuremberg

    Film

    Defendant Albert Speer is sworn in at the International Military Tribunal.

    Albert Speer sworn in at Nuremberg
  • Albert Speer testifies at Nuremberg

    Film

    Albert Speer gives testimony at the International Military Tribunal. In 1942 Speer was named Minister of Armaments and Munitions, assuming significant responsibility for the German war economy. In this position, Speer used millions of forced laborers to raise economic production.

    Albert Speer testifies at Nuremberg
  • Allied prisoner of war describes work details

    Film

    Most Allied prisoners of war (POWs) were treated well compared to inmates of concentration camps. But, as former Dutch POW Captain Boullard explains here at Dachau concentration camp, some were subject to severe beatings and forced to work in harsh labor assignments.

    Allied prisoner of war describes work details
  • Allies evacuate troops from Dunkirk

    Film

    The German western campaign in May 1940 decisively defeated the British and French forces arrayed against it. By the end of May, the Allies began the withdrawal of British and French forces from the Continent to prevent their surrender or destruction. The evacuation effort centered on the French coastal town of Dunkirk. As German forces completed their conquest of France, more than 1,000 vessels--including small civilian yachts and fishing boats--ferried Allied forces across the English Channel to Great Britain. While enduring heavy air attacks, this makeshift armada succeeded in rescuing over 200,000 British and 100,000 French troops from the Continent. Britain hailed the evacuation as a victory, despite the decisive German military victory and the French decision to sign an armistice.

    Allies evacuate troops from Dunkirk
  • Annexation of Austria

    Film

    German troops entered Austria on March 12, 1938. The annexation of Austria to Germany was proclaimed on March 13, 1938. In this German newsreel footage, Austrians express overwhelming enthusiasm for the Nazi takeover of their country.

    Annexation of Austria
  • Annexation of Austria

    Film

    In an attempt to prevent the German annexation of Austria, Austrian chancellor Kurt von Schusnigg proposed a plebiscite on Austrian independence. This German newsreel footage shows pro-German residents of Graz expressing their opposition to the plebiscite. On the following day, March 13, 1938, the residents of Graz and other Austrian cities celebrated the resignation of the Austrian government and the proclamation of union with Germany (the Anschluss).

    Tags: Austria
    Annexation of Austria
  • Anti-Nazi protest

    Film

    Adolf Hitler became chancellor of Germany in January 1933. Soon thereafter, terror actions against opponents of Nazism began: Jews were a major target in these campaigns. Many Jews were subjected to public humiliation or arrest, and others were forced to quit their posts. Anti-Jewish measures climaxed with the April 1, 1933, boycott of Jewish-owned businesses. This footage depicts a Jewish anti-Nazi march in Chicago.

    Anti-Nazi protest
  • Anti-Nazi protest organized by American Jewish Congress

    Film

    The American Jewish Congress was among the first groups in the United States to oppose Nazism. It held a mass rally as early as March 1933, soon after Hitler rose to power in Germany, and continued to hold rallies throughout the war years. The American Jewish Congress organized this anti-Nazi march through Lower Manhattan. The event coincided with book burning in Germany.

    Anti-Nazi protest organized by American Jewish Congress
  • Battle for Danzig

    Film

    The Treaty of Versailles, imposed on defeated Germany following World War I, declared Danzig to be a free city jointly administered by Poland and the League of Nations. Germany bitterly resented the loss of this largely German city, which was also an important port on the Baltic Sea. The return of Danzig became a central feature of Adolf Hitler's foreign policy. This footage shows pro-German forces besieging a Polish garrison in Danzig's main post office. Germany annexed Danzig after the defeat of Poland in September 1939.

    Battle for Danzig
  • Battle of Britain

    Film

    After the defeat of France in June 1940, Germany moved to gain air superiority over Great Britain as a prelude to an invasion of Britain. Despite months of air attacks, Germany was not able to destroy Britain's Royal Air Force (RAF). In the fall of 1940, the invasion was indefinitely postponed. The German bombing campaign against Britain continued until May 1941. The Germans ultimately halted the air attacks primarily because of preparations for the invasion of the Soviet Union in June 1941.

    Battle of Britain
  • Benito Mussolini

    Film

    Benito Mussolini, leader of the Italian Fascist movement, was prime minister of Italy from 1922 until he was dismissed in July 1943. After the Italian armistice with the Allies in September 1943, German forces occupied northern Italy and installed Mussolini as head of a new pro-German government. In April 1945, as Allied forces advanced into northern Italy, Mussolini attempted to escape to neutral Switzerland. However, Italian partisans caught and executed him before he could reach the border. This footage is a brief survey of Mussolini's rise to power and rule.

    Tags: Italy
    Benito Mussolini
  • Bergen-Belsen after liberation

    Film

    As Allied forces approached Germany in late 1944 and early 1945, Bergen-Belsen became a collection camp for tens of thousands of prisoners evacuated from camps near the front. Thousands of these prisoners died due to overcrowding, poor sanitary conditions, and lack of adequate food and shelter. On April 15, 1945, British soldiers entered Bergen-Belsen. They found 60,000 prisoners in the camp, most in a critical condition. This footage shows Allied cameramen filming the condition of the prisoners and the filthy conditions found in Bergen-Belsen after liberation.

    Bergen-Belsen after liberation
  • Berlin-Tokyo-Rome Axis

    Film

    In Berlin, Germany, officials from Nazi Germany, Fascist Italy, and Imperial Japan sign the ten-year Tripartite Pact (the Three-Power Agreement), a military alliance. The pact sealed cooperation among the three nations (Axis powers) in waging World War II. This footage comes from "The Nazi Plan," a film produced and used by the United States in the prosecution at the Nuremberg trials.

    Berlin-Tokyo-Rome Axis
  • Book peddler in Munkács

    Film

    Exterior of house of study. Book peddler negotiates a sale with a young customer.

    Book peddler in Munkács
  • Books burn as Goebbels speaks

    Film

    In their drive to rid the country of all that they deemed "un-German," the Nazis publically burned books in cities across Germany. Here in front of the Opera House in Berlin, a chanting crowd burns books written by Jews and leftist intellectuals. Joseph Goebbels, Hitler's minister of propaganda and public information, speaks of the intended "reeducation" of Germany.

    Books burn as Goebbels speaks
  • British Prosecutor Shawcross

    Film

    British Chief Prosecutor Sir Hartley Shawcross makes a final plea to the International Military Tribunal.

    British Prosecutor Shawcross
  • British army chaplain describes Bergen-Belsen upon liberation

    Film

    British troops liberated the Bergen-Belsen concentration camp in Germany in April 1945. They filmed statements from members of their own forces. In this British military footage, British army chaplain T.J. Stretch recounts his impressions of the camp.

    British army chaplain describes Bergen-Belsen upon liberation
  • British soldiers deport "Exodus 1947" passengers

    Film

    In July 1947 in France, 4,500 Jewish refugees from displaced persons camps in Germany boarded the "Exodus 1947" and attempted to sail (without permission to land) to Palestine, which was under British mandate. The British intercepted the ship off the coast and forced it to anchor in Haifa, where British soldiers removed the Jewish refugees. After British authorities failed to force France to accept the refugees, the refugees were returned to DP camps in Germany. The plight of the "Exodus" passengers became a symbol of the struggle for open immigration into Palestine.

    British soldiers deport "Exodus 1947" passengers
  • Buchenwald concentration camp

    Film

    Clip from George Stevens' "The Nazi Concentration Camps." This German film footage was compiled as evidence and used by the prosecution at the Nuremberg trials.

    Buchenwald concentration camp
  • Conditions in the Warsaw ghetto

    Film

    After the Germans established the Warsaw ghetto in October 1940, conditions deteriorated rapidly. The Germans strictly controlled the movement of goods into and out of the ghetto. There was not enough food to feed the ghetto residents. At great personal risk, many Jews attempted to smuggle in food. The German food ration for Warsaw ghetto inhabitants amounted to less than 10 percent of the ration for a German citizen. Thousands of Jew died in Warsaw each month because of starvation or disease.

    Conditions in the Warsaw ghetto
  • Conditions in the Warsaw ghetto

    Film

    The Nazis sealed the Warsaw ghetto in mid-November 1940. German-induced overcrowding and food shortages led to an extremely high mortality rate in the ghetto. Almost 30 percent of the population of Warsaw was packed into 2.4 percent of the city's area. The Germans set a food ration for Jews at just 181 calories a day. By August 1941, more than 5,000 people a month succumbed to starvation and disease.

    Conditions in the Warsaw ghetto
  • Conditions in the Warsaw ghetto

    Film

    The Nazis sealed the Warsaw ghetto in mid-November 1940. German-induced overcrowding and food shortages led to an extremely high mortality rate in the ghetto. Almost 30 percent of the population of Warsaw was packed into 2.4 percent of the city's area. The Germans set a food ration for Jews at just 181 calories a day. By August 1941, more than 5,000 people a month succumbed to starvation and disease.

    Conditions in the Warsaw ghetto
  • Croatian fascist leader Ante Pavelic

    Film

    Ante Pavelic was a Croatian fascist leader who headed a pro-German government in Croatia from 1941 until 1945. This captured German newsreel shows Pavelic walking through an adoring crowd and reviewing his units. Under Pavelic's rule, the Croatian government killed hundreds of thousands of Serbs, Jews, and Roma (Gypsies). Pavelic fled to Argentina after the war. He died in 1959 from wounds he received in an assassination attempt two years earlier.

    Tags: Croatia
    Croatian fascist leader Ante Pavelic
  • Cross examination of defendant Walter Funk

    Film

    US prosecutor Thomas Dodd cross examines defandant Walter Funk, former president of the German national bank. Dodd questions Funk about the possessions confiscated from concentration camp prisoners and elsewhere in German-occupied territories.

    Cross examination of defendant Walter Funk
  • D-Day

    Film

    Massive Allied landings of air- and sea-borne forces on five Normandy beaches (codenamed Utah, Omaha, Gold, Juno, and Sword) began on June 6, 1944 (D-Day). The purpose of the invasion was to establish a bridgehead from which Allied forces could break out and liberate France. By the end of the operation's first day, some 150,000 troops were ashore in Normandy. This footage shows Allied forces landing on the Normandy beaches.

    Tags: World War II
    D-Day
  • D-Day bombings over France

    Film

    Allied air superiority over Germany was a decisive factor in the success of the D-Day (June 6, 1944) landings in France. This footage shows the Allied bombing of suspected German positions during the battle. Allied air attacks both supported Allied ground operations in Normandy and prevented German reinforcements from reaching the area. The Allies would liberate most of France by the end of August 1944.

    D-Day bombings over France
  • Dachau after liberation

    Film

    The Dachau concentration camp, northwest of Munich, Germany, was the first regular concentration camp the Nazis established in 1933. About twelve years later, on April 29, 1945, US armed forces liberated the camp. There were about 30,000 starving prisoners in the camp at that time. The film seen here was edited from original footage shot by Allied cameramen as liberating troops entered Dachau. It was discovered in the archives of the Imperial War Museum in 1984 and was never completed.

    Dachau after liberation
  • Daily life in the Warsaw ghetto

    Film

    A bridge connected areas of the Warsaw ghetto to prevent Jews from entering the streets that were not part of the ghetto. Before the ghetto was sealed, the few entrances and exits had checkpoints. In the early months of the ghetto, life had the appearance of normalcy, but very soon the lack of food and adequate housing began to take its toll.

    Daily life in the Warsaw ghetto
  • Defeat of Belgium

    Film

    German forces invaded western Europe in May 1940. As part of their strategy to defeat Britain and France, German forces invaded neutral Belgium. Little more than two weeks after the German invasion of Belgium, King Leopold III ordered the surrender of the Belgian army. In this footage a Belgian officer signs the surrender and thousands of refugees flood the streets as German forces move through Belgium.

    Defeat of Belgium
  • Defendant Hans Frank testifies

    Film

    Defendant Hans Frank gives testimony to his defense lawyer during the Nuremberg trial about his leadership roles during the Third Reich.

    Defendant Hans Frank testifies
  • Defendant Hermann Göring listens to trial testimony

    Film

    Defendant Hermann Göring, seated at left in the dock, listens as US Chief Prosecutor Robert Jackson interrogates witness Albert Kesselring about the Luftwaffe (German Air Force).

    Defendant Hermann Göring listens to trial testimony
  • Defendant Julius Streicher

    Film

    Defendant Julius Streicher is sworn in as a witness during the International Military Tribunal at Nuremberg.

    Defendant Julius Streicher
  • Defendants enter pleas at Nuremberg Trial

    Film

    After the defeat of Germany, the Allies tried leading state and party officials and military commanders of the Third Reich before a tribunal of military judges from the Soviet Union, Great Britain, France, and the United States. This International Military Tribunal tried 22 major war criminals during what is commonly known as the Nuremberg Trial, which lasted from November 1945 to October 1946. This footage shows the accused entering pleas following their indictment on charges of crimes against peace, war crimes, and crimes against humanity. Hjalmar Schacht, Franz von Papen, and Hans Fritzsche were acquitted by the tribunal. Twelve of the defendants, including Hermann Göring, Wilhelm Keitel, Joachim von Ribbentrop, and Ernst Kaltenbrunner, were sentenced to death. Others served prison terms ranging from ten years to life in prison.

    Defendants enter pleas at Nuremberg Trial

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