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  • Karolina Dresler

    Article

    Children's diaries bear witness to some of the most heartbreaking experiences of the Holocaust. Learn about the diary and experiences of Karolina Dresler.

    Karolina Dresler
  • Miriam Goldberg

    Article

    Children's diaries bear witness to some of the most heartbreaking experiences of the Holocaust. Learn about the diary and experiences of Miriam Goldberg.

  • Chaim Kozienicki

    Article

    Children's diaries bear witness to some of the most heartbreaking experiences of the Holocaust. Learn about the diary and experiences of Chaim Kozienicki.

    Chaim Kozienicki
  • Jakub Lapides

    Article

    Young people's diaries bear witness to some of the most heartbreaking experiences of the Holocaust. Learn about the diary and experiences of Jakub Lapides.

    Jakub Lapides
  • Jehuda Lejb Lubinski (Lolek Lubinski)

    Article

    Young people's diaries bear witness to some of the most heartbreaking experiences of the Holocaust. Learn about the diary and experiences of Lolek Lubinski

  • Sara Rachela Plagier

    Article

    Children's diaries bear witness to some of the most heartbreaking events of the Holocaust. Learn about the diary and experiences of Sara Rachela Plagier.

    Sara Rachela Plagier
  • Jutta Szmirgeld

    Article

    Children's diaries bear witness to some of the most heartbreaking events of the Holocaust. Learn about the diary and experiences of Jutta Szmirgeld.

    Jutta Szmirgeld
  • Israel Unikowski

    Article

    Children's diaries bear witness to some of the most heartbreaking events of the Holocaust. Learn about the diary and experiences of Israel Unikowski.

  • Freiberg

    Article

     

  • Lublin/Majdanek: Key Dates

    Article

    Explore a timeline of key events in the history of the Lublin/Majdanek camp in German-occupied Poland.

    Lublin/Majdanek: Key Dates
  • Lublin/Majdanek Concentration Camp: Areas of Research

    Article

    The total number of prisoners to go through the Majdanek main camp has not yet been recalculated consistent with the latest research. The number of deaths is now estimated at between 80,000 and 110,000 for the main camp alone. Most succumbed to starvation, disease, exposure, and the effects of physical torture or back-breaking labor performed under threat of violence. The SS murdered some prisoners  in the gas chambers, some upon arrival, and more after deeming them too weak to work. The total number of…

    Lublin/Majdanek Concentration Camp: Areas of Research
  • Allied Military Operations in North Africa

    Article

    Learn about the North African military campaigns of World War II which took place between September 13, 1940, and May 13, 1943.

  • Western Desert Campaign: Egypt and Libya

    Article

    Fighting began in North Africa on September 13, 1940, when Marshal Rodolfo Graziani's Italian 10th Army launched an attack from its bases in Libya on outnumbered British forces in western Egypt. A successful British counterattack initiated on December 9, 1940, led by General Sir Archibald Wavell, resulted in Italian defeat at Tobruk (Tubruq) in eastern Libya on January 22, 1941. On February 12, 1941, German General Erwin Rommel arrived in Libya to take command of troops sent to reinforce Germany's Italian…

    Western Desert Campaign: Egypt and Libya
  • Operation Torch: The Anglo-American Invasion of French North Africa

    Article

    The Operation Operation Torch was the Anglo-American invasion of French Morocco and Algeria during the North African Campaign of World War II. It began on November 8 and concluded on November 16, 1942. It resulted from an uneasy compromise between the Western Allies, and was intended to relieve pressure on the Soviet Union by imperiling Axis forces in the region and by enabling an invasion of Southern Europe in 1943. Commanded by General Dwight D. Eisenhower, the operation was designed as a pincer…

  • Tunisia Campaign

    Article

    The Tunisian campaign began with an Allied amphibious landing near Sfax in eastern Tunisia on January 5, 1943, and an attack on German positions at Gafsa in west central Tunisia on March 17, 1943. On February 4, 1943, the British Eighth Army crossed the border from Libya into Tunisia. Squeezed between US and British Commonwealth forces and cut off from his supply bases, German General Erwin Rommel attempted to stall the Allies with defensive operations. German and Italian troops managed to rout the US…

    Tunisia Campaign
  • Stanislawow (by Nechama Tec)

    Article

    A Project of the Miles Lerman Center This article excerpted from Nechama Tec, Resilience and Courage: Women, Men, and the Holocaust, New Haven: Yale University Press, 2003, pp. 336-339. Little is known about the Jews of wartime Stanislawow, their lives, resistance, and deaths. In this brief and blurred history a chemical engineer named Anda Luft played an unusual role. If we examine this young woman's actions and those of the people around her we shall find some recurrent motifs. The liquidation of the…

  • World War II Timeline

    Article

    World War II was the largest and most destructive conflict in history. Learn more in this timeline of key WWII dates and events.

    World War II Timeline
  • Nazi Racism: In Depth
  • Moses Beckelman

    Article

    A social worker from New York City, Moses Beckelman began his career with the American Jewish Joint Distribution Committee (the “Joint”) in 1939. Born and educated in New York, Beckelman had been active in the city's social services community throughout the 1930s. Arriving in Vilna in October 1939, he faced a refugee crisis of staggering proportions. With his colleague Yitzhak Gitterman, Beckelman arranged to feed, house, and clothe thousands of people, as well as provide care for children and the…

    Moses Beckelman
  • Stephen S. Wise

    Article

    Stephen Wise (1874–1949) was a prominent US Jewish leader in the 1933–1945 period. Born in Budapest in 1874 and the grandson of the Chief Rabbi of Eger, Hungary (a town about sixty miles northeast of Budapest), Stephen Wise immigrated to New York as a child. After his ordination as a Reform rabbi, he led a congregation in Portland, Oregon, where his liberal political convictions inspired him to fight for child labor laws and for the demands of striking workers. A charismatic orator, he became a…

  • World War II: In Depth

    Article

    Germany started World War II in Europe on September 1, 1939, by invading Poland. War would continue until 1945. Learn more about key events in the history of WWII.

    Tags: World War II
    World War II: In Depth
  • Glossary

    Article

    Antisemitism: hostility toward or hatred of Jews as a religious or ethnic group, often accompanied by social, economic, or political discrimination. Appellplatz: German word for roll call square where prisoners were forced to assemble. Aryan: Term used in Nazi Germany to refer to non-Jewish and non-Roma (Gypsy) Caucasians. Northern Europeans with especially "Nordic" features such as blonde hair and blue eyes were considered by so-called race scientists to be the most superior of Aryans, members of a…

    Tags: Holocaust
  • "Aryanization"

    Article

    By the process of "Aryanization" in Nazi Germany from 1933 to 1945, Jewish-owned businesses and property were transferred to non-Jews. Learn more.

    "Aryanization"
  • Julius Streicher: Biography

    Article

    Julius Streicher, an early Nazi Party members, was an organizer of the anti-Jewish boycott of April 1933 and publisher of the virulently antisemitic Der Stürmer.

    Julius Streicher: Biography
  • Mittelbau Main Camp: In Depth

    Article

    Learn about conditions and forced labor in Dora-Mittelbau, the center of an extensive network of forced-labor camps for the production of V-2 missiles and other weapons.

    Mittelbau Main Camp: In Depth
  • The Holocaust in Bohemia and Moravia

    Article

    Overview According to the 1930 census, 356,830 persons in the Czechoslovak Republic identified themselves as Jews by religion: 117,551 in Bohemia and Moravia, 136,737 in Slovakia, and 102,542 in Subcarpathian Rus. The partition of Czechoslovakia in 1938–1939 determined the fate of its Jews during World War II. After the breakup of Czechoslovakia, approximately 118,310 persons defined as Jews lived in the Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia. Before 1941, approximately 26,000 Jews were able to…

    The Holocaust in Bohemia and Moravia
  • The Holocaust in Slovakia

    Article

    Though nominally independent, Slovakia was highly dependent on Nazi Germany after the dismemberment of Czechoslovakia. In November 1940, Slovakia joined the Axis when its leaders signed the Tripartite Pact. In fulfillment of the requirements of the Axis partnership, Slovakia participated in the invasion of the Soviet Union in June 1941 and declared war on Britain and the United States in December 1941. Slovakia was also the first Axis partner to consent to the deportation of its Jewish residents in the…

    The Holocaust in Slovakia
  • The Holocaust in Subcarpathian Rus and Southern Slovakia

    Article

    The Transcarpathian region of Ukraine is an area known historically as Subcarpathian Rus. Before World War I, Subcarpathian Rus was part of Hungary. In the interwar years it was part of Czechoslovakia. Hungarian Annexation of Subcarpathian Rus Hungary seized and annexed Subcarpathian Rus in 1939, in the wake of the dismemberment of Czechoslovakia. In the first ten days of August 1941, Hungarian authorities expelled about 18,000 Jews from Subcarpathian Rus into German-occupied Ukraine. Hungarian military…

  • Forced Labor: In Depth

    Article

    Forced labor, often pointless, humiliating, without proper equipment, clothing, nourishment, or rest, was a core feature in the Nazi camp system from its beginnings in 1933.

    Forced Labor: In Depth
  • Killing Centers: In Depth

    Article

    The Nazis established killing centers in German-occupied Europe during WWII. They built these killing centers for the mass murder of human beings.

    Killing Centers: In Depth
  • "Final Solution": In Depth

    Article

    The "Final Solution," the Nazi plan to kill the Jews of Europe, was a core goal of Adolf Hitler and the culmination of German policy under Nazi rule.

    "Final Solution": In Depth
  • Mosaic of Victims: In Depth

    Article

    Jews were one of four groups racially targeted for persecution in Nazi Germany and in German-controlled Europe. Racially Targeted Groups While Nazi ideology targeted Jews as the primary enemy of Germany, the Nazis also targeted Roma (Gypsies) on racial grounds. The 1935 Nuremberg Laws (which defined Jews by blood) were later applied to Roma. Drawing on traditional prejudices in German society, the Nazis termed Roma as prone by race to be "work-shy" and "asocial" with an inherited inclination to engage in…

    Mosaic of Victims: In Depth
  • Seeking Refuge in Cuba, 1939

    Article

    In May 1939, several ships, including the passenger liner St. Louis, brought Jewish refugees fleeing Nazi Germany (including recently annexed Austria, Bohemia, and Moravia) to Havana, Cuba. Three such ships carrying refugees seeking safety were the Orduña, the Flandre, and the Orinoco. These ships arrived in Havana harbor, but not all their passengers were allowed to disembark.  Orduña On May 27, 1939, the day that also saw the arrival of the St. Louis, the British Pacific Steamship Navigation…

    Seeking Refuge in Cuba, 1939
  • Third Reich

    Article

    Both inside and outside Germany, the term “Third Reich” was often used to describe the Nazi regime in Germany from January 30, 1933, to May 8, 1945. The Nazi rise to power marked the beginning of the Third Reich. It brought an end to the Weimar Republic, a parliamentary democracy established in defeated Germany after World War I. The last years of the Weimar Republic were plagued by political deadlock, increasing political street violence, and economic depression. These years were also marked by…

    Third Reich
  • Non-Jewish Resistance

    Article

    A variety of non-Jewish groups and individuals resisted the Nazi regime, both in Germany and in German-occupied territory. Learn more.

    Non-Jewish Resistance
  • Documentation on the Persecution of Roma (Gypsies)

    Article

    Documentation on the persecution of the Roma (Gypsies) is abundant in archives and other repositories throughout Europe, the United States, and even in Israel. In order to understand where material exists, basic background information on legislation against the Roma before and during the Third Reich is necessary. The German state of Bavaria introduced one of the first legislative acts against the Roma in 1926. This law required that all Roma register with the authorities and regulated their movements. The…

    Documentation on the Persecution of Roma (Gypsies)
  • Concentration Camp System: In Depth

    Article

    The Nazi regime's extensive camp system included concentration camps, forced-labor camps, prisoner-of-war camps, transit camps, and killing centers.

    Concentration Camp System: In Depth
  • Fürstengrube

    Article

     Auschwitz, Dachau, the Warsaw ghetto... These are names that resonate...

  • München-Schwabing

    Article

    Learn about the establishment and history of the Dachau subcamp München-Schwabing, and the role of Eleonore Baur (also known as Schwester Pia or Sister Pia).

  • Bremen-Farge

    Article

    Learn more about Bremen-Farge, a subcamp of Neuengamme where the majority of prisoners were used to construct an underground U-boat shipyard for the German navy.

  • Martin Niemöller: Biography

    Article

    Martin Niemöller Martin Niemöller (1892–1984) was a prominent Protestant pastor who emerged as an outspoken public foe of Adolf Hitler and spent the last seven years of Nazi rule in concentration camps, despite his ardent nationalism. Niemöller is perhaps best remembered for the quotation: “First they came for the socialists, and I did not speak out...” The son of Lutheran pastor Heinrich Niemöller, Martin Niemöller was born in the Westphalian town of Lippstadt, Germany, on January 14, 1892.…

  • SS: Key Dates

    Article

    Key dates in the history of the SS (Schutzstaffel; Protection Squadrons), charged with the leadership of the “Final Solution,” the murder of European Jews.

    SS: Key Dates
  • Trawniki: Key Dates

    Article

    Explore a timeline of key events in the history of the Trawniki in German-occupied Poland.

  • Reinhard Heydrich: Key Dates

    Article

    Key dates in the life of Reinhard Heydrich, chief of the Reich Security Main Office, the SS and police agency most directly concerned with implementing Final Solution.

    Reinhard Heydrich: Key Dates
  • Heinrich Himmler: Key Dates

    Article

    Heinrich Himmler was the leader of the dreaded SS of the Nazi Party from 1929 until 1945. Learn more about key dates in the life of Heinrich Himmler.

    Heinrich Himmler: Key Dates
  • Trawniki

    Article

    The SS camp at Trawniki in the Lublin District of the General Government existed from July 1941 through July 1944. It underwent four changes of function and purpose in the three years of its existence. Purpose of the Trawniki Camp From July until September 1941, Trawniki served as a holding pen for Soviet civilians and soldiers. From September 1941 until July 1944, it was a training facility for police auxiliaries deployed in Operation Reinhard. From June 1942 until September 1943, it served as a…

    Trawniki
  • SS and the Camp System

    Article

    In 1933-1934, SS chief Heinrich Himmler secured SS control over a centralized concentration camp system. Throughout Germany, various civilian authorities and police agencies had established concentration camps during 1933 to incarcerate political enemies of the Nazi government. Impressed with the Dachau concentration camp established by the SS in March 1933, Hitler authorized Himmler to centralize these camps under SS leadership. Himmler established (in the SS Main Office) an SS Inspectorate of…

    SS and the Camp System
  • The SS

    Article

    The SS (Schutzstaffel, or Protection Squads) was originally established as Adolf Hitler’s personal bodyguard unit. It would later become both the elite guard of the Nazi Reich and Hitler’s executive force prepared to carry out all security-related duties, without regard for legal restraint.

    The SS
  • SS and Nazi Policy

    Article

    SS and Foreign Policy In 1937, the SS made its first foray into German foreign policy as it took over control of the Ethnic German Liaison Office (Volksdeutsche Mittelstelle; VoMi). VoMi ministered to the needs of ethnic Germans living outside the Reich. Though this involved economic and culture assistance prior to the war, the VoMi distributed clothing, furniture, and household equipment for newly resettled ethnic German communities throughout German-occupied Europe during the war. The SS supplied many…

  • SS and the Holocaust

    Article

    During the prewar years, the SS competed with powerful rivals in both the Nazi Party and the state apparatus for authority to direct efforts towards a “solution” of the so-called Jewish question in Germany. The SS established a special department in the SD to “research” the “Jewish question” in 1934. In 1938, SD “experts,” led by SS First Lieutenant Adolf Eichmann, demonstrated imaginative leadership in “Jewish matters” (Judenangelegenheiten) by creating a one-stop station in Vienna…

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