| Displaying results 101-150 of 6711 for "" |

  • Liberation of Mauthausen

    Film

    The Mauthausen concentration camp was established shortly after the German annexation of Austria (1938). Prisoners in the camp were forced to perform crushing labor in a nearby stone quarry and, later, to construct subterranean tunnels for rocket assembly factories. US forces liberated the camp in May 1945. In this footage, starving survivors of the Mauthausen concentration camp eat soup and scramble for potatoes.

    Liberation of Mauthausen
  • Estonian policemen stand trial for war crimes

    Film

    Estonian auxiliary forces assisted the German Einsatzgruppen (mobile killing units) in the mass killing of Jews and others during World War II. Ralf Gerrets and Jaan Viik were both members of the Estonian security police during the German occupation. This footage shows them during their trial, on charges of war crimes, in the Estonian Soviet Socialist Republic. The Estonian Supreme Court found both guilty and sentenced them to death in 1961.

    Estonian policemen stand trial for war crimes
  • Deportation of Jews from Bulgarian-occupied Thrace

    Film

    Jews were deported from Kavala, Seres, and Drama in Bulgarian-occupied Thrace. Some 3,000 Jews were taken to Drama and herded onto trains without food or water for transport to a camp in Gorna Dzumaya. The Jews were probably then taken to the Bulgarian port of Lom on the Danube River, where they boarded ships for Vienna. From there, the Nazis deported them to the Treblinka killing center.

    Deportation of Jews from Bulgarian-occupied Thrace
  • French Liberation

    Film

    Jubilation over the liberation of Paris: US troops parade along the Champs-Elysees and French civilians celebrate. General Charles de Gaulle and General Omar Bradley review the troops.

    French Liberation
  • Victory in Europe!

    Film

    Germany's formal surrender on May 7 and VE-Day (Victory in Europe Day) on May 8, 1945, were marked by joyous celebrations all over Europe. This footage shows streets in Paris and London filled with people celebrating the unconditional Allied victory over Nazi Germany and the winning of the war in Europe.

    Victory in Europe!
  • Benito Mussolini

    Film

    Benito Mussolini, leader of the Italian Fascist movement, was prime minister of Italy from 1922 until he was dismissed in July 1943. After the Italian armistice with the Allies in September 1943, German forces occupied northern Italy and installed Mussolini as head of a new pro-German government. In April 1945, as Allied forces advanced into northern Italy, Mussolini attempted to escape to neutral Switzerland. However, Italian partisans caught and executed him before he could reach the border. This footage…

    Tags: Italy
    Benito Mussolini
  • Liberation of Rome

    Film

    After Italy's armistice with the Allies in September 1943, the Italian army disintegrated. The country was divided between German forces holding the northern and central regions (including Rome) and Allied forces in the south. After nine months of bitter combat, Allied forces—specifically the US Fifth Army—liberated Rome in June 1944. This footage shows scenes of celebration as troops move through Rome. It ends with a prayer by Pius XII (pope, 1939–1958).

    Liberation of Rome
  • German forces in Italy surrender to the Allies

    Film

    Allied forces occupied most of Germany by the end of April 1945. German forces fighting in Italy were the first to surrender unconditionally to the Allies. Representatives of the German command in Italy signed the surrender on April 29, and it became effective on May 2, 1945. Five days later, on May 7, 1945, Germany surrendered unconditionally to the western Allies, ending the war in Europe.

    German forces in Italy surrender to the Allies
  • Jews at forced labor in Belgrade

    Film

    Shortly after the German occupation of Belgrade, Yugoslavia, in April 1941, the Germans forced Jews to clear the rubble caused by the heavy bombardment of the city. This German newsreel footage shows Jews clearing some of the rubble. Most of the city's Jews were later arrested and interned in camps. The German army later shot the Jewish men in retaliation for Serb resistance; the Germans killed the Jewish women and children in gas vans. Only about 2,200 Jews of Belgrade returned to the city after the war.

    Jews at forced labor in Belgrade
  • Ustasa forces round up villagers

    Film

    The Ustase were pro-German Croatian fascists. After the Axis invasion and partition of Yugoslavia in April 1941, the Germans established a dependent Croatian state. Led by Ante Pavelic, the Croatian regime began a genocidal campaign against minority groups and killed hundreds of thousands of Serbs and tens of thousands of Jews in Croatia. This possibly staged Ustase footage shows Ustase paramilitary forces rounding up villagers in rural Croatia. In May 1945, Yugoslav partisans under Marshal Tito--with…

    Ustasa forces round up villagers
  • Jewish refugees arrive in Haifa and are interned

    Film

    The ship "Henrietta Szold," carrying more than 500 Jewish "illegal" immigrants from Greece to Palestine, arrived in Haifa on August 14, 1946. British authorities immediately interned the immigrants and deported them to British internment camps on the island of Cyprus.

    Jewish refugees arrive in Haifa and are interned
  • German invasion of Norway and the naval war

    Film

    Germany invaded Norway on April 9, 1940, simultaneously attacking Norway's coastal cities from Narvik in the far north to Oslo in the south. Despite Allied naval superiority, German naval forces played an important role in the campaign. This footage shows German naval units sailing towards Norway in rough seas. German victory in Norway secured access to the North Atlantic for the German navy, especially the submarine fleet, and safeguarded transports of Swedish iron ore for Germany's war industry.

    German invasion of Norway and the naval war
  • German invasion of Norway: Narvik

    Film

    Germany invaded Norway on April 9, 1940, simultaneously attacking Norway's coastal cities from Narvik in the far north to Oslo in the south. Narvik was the scene of fierce battles between German forces and the Allies, who landed troops by sea in support of the Norwegians. Narvik changed hands several times. However, British, French, and Polish forces were finally withdrawn in June 1940 due to the success of the German campaign in western Europe. German victory in Norway secured access to the North Atlantic…

    German invasion of Norway: Narvik
  • Norwegian fascists

    Film

    This German newsreel footage shows Vidkun Quisling, leader of the fascist Norwegian Nasjonal Samling party, reviewing his troops. Quisling headed a pro-Nazi puppet regime in Norway during the war.

    Norwegian fascists
  • US military chiefs visit displaced persons camp

    Film

    In this footage, General Dwight Eisenhower, General George Patton, and Major General Lewis Craig inspect conditions at the Feldafing displaced persons camp near Wolfratshausen, Germany. Feldafing was one of the first displaced persons camps to house primarily Jewish refugees. In August 1945, Eisenhower ordered that Feldafing be used as a model for the establishment of other camps for Jewish displaced persons in the US occupation zones of Germany and Austria.

    US military chiefs visit displaced persons camp
  • Deportation of Jews from Balti, Bessarabia

    Film

    The Romanian government was allied with Nazi Germany, but it generally did not deport Romanian Jews to German-occupied territory. Instead, Romania systematically concentrated and deported the Jews of Bessarabia and northern Bukovina to Romanian-occupied areas of the Ukraine. Here, Jews from the Bessarabian town of Balti are assembled in collection camps during the deportations. By the end of May 1942, Romanian security forces had killed or deported most of the Jews in the area. Only about 200 Jews remained…

    Deportation of Jews from Balti, Bessarabia
  • Ion Antonescu meets with Hitler

    Film

    Marshal Ion Antonescu was ruler of Romania from 1940 to 1944. Following the defeat of German forces at Stalingrad, Hitler suspected that some of the countries allied with Germany intended to negotiate a separate peace. In this German newsreel footage, Antonescu meets with Hitler in Berchtesgaden, Germany, primarily to reassure Hitler that Romania remained committed to the German war effort. In the year following this meeting, King Michael of Romania arrested Antonescu and signed an armistice with the…

    Ion Antonescu meets with Hitler
  • Croatian fascist leader Ante Pavelic

    Film

    Ante Pavelic was a Croatian fascist leader who headed a pro-German government in Croatia from 1941 until 1945. This captured German newsreel shows Pavelic walking through an adoring crowd and reviewing his units. Under Pavelic's rule, the Croatian government killed hundreds of thousands of Serbs, Jews, and Roma (Gypsies). Pavelic fled to Argentina after the war. He died in 1959 from wounds he received in an assassination attempt two years earlier.

    Tags: Croatia
    Croatian fascist leader Ante Pavelic
  • Trial of Ion Antonescu

    Film

    Ion Antonescu governed Romania from 1940 until 1944. Antonescu aligned Romania with the Axis powers in November 1940, and became one of Nazi Germany's closest allies. Romania joined in the German invasion of the Soviet Union in 1941. It also implemented harsh anti-Jewish policies against Jews in Romania. While Antonescu ultimately refused to hand Jews over to the Germans, Romanian forces brutally killed hundreds of thousands of Jews, mainly residents of Bessarabia, Bukovina, and the western Ukraine. As the…

    Trial of Ion Antonescu
  • Warsaw Polish uprising

    Film

    On August 1, 1944, the Armia Krajowa (Polish Home Army) launched an uprising in Warsaw against the German occupiers. Although the Western allies dropped ammunition and supplies and the Soviet army was within sight of the city, the uprising was crushed. This German newsreel footage shows the German suppression of the uprising.

    Warsaw Polish uprising
  • Treatment of US POWs

    Film

    A former US prisoner of war (POW), United States Navy Lieutenant Jack Taylor, testifies to the treatment he and other American POWs received in the Mauthausen concentration camp in Austria.

    Treatment of US POWs
  • Father Charles Coughlin opposes Roosevelt

    Film

    Father Charles E. Coughlin was a Catholic priest who reached a large audience through mass rallies and radio broadcasts. Coughlin, openly antisemitic, was an outspoken critic of the political establishment. This footage shows him addressing more than 80,000 people, the Illinois members of the National Union for Social Justice, at Riverview Park in Chicago. He criticized President Roosevelt (running for a second term as President of the United States) and attacked the government's fiscal policy in the…

    Father Charles Coughlin opposes Roosevelt
  • Olympic Games in Berlin

    Film

    The 1936 Summer Olympic Games were held in Berlin. For two weeks, Adolf Hitler camouflaged his antisemitic and expansionist agenda while hosting the games. Hoping to impress the many foreign visitors who were in Germany for the games, Hitler authorized a brief relaxation in anti-Jewish activities (including the removal of signs barring Jews from public places). The games were a resounding propaganda success for the Nazis. They presented foreign spectators with the image of a peaceful and tolerant Germany.…

    Olympic Games in Berlin
  • UNRRA conference convenes in the United States

    Film

    The United Nations Relief and Rehabilitation Administration (UNRRA) was established in November 1943 to aid refugees fleeing Axis aggression. After World War II, UNRRA sought to assist millions of refugees displaced by the war and its consequences. In the aftermath of the war, worldwide food shortages threatened millions with starvation and the world looked to the United States for assistance. In this footage, UNRRA's fourth council meeting convenes in Atlantic City. Director-General Herbert H. Lehman…

    UNRRA conference convenes in the United States
  • Wedding in Munkács

    Film

    Huge crowds of well wishers gather in the streets on the occasion of the wedding of the Munkács rabbi's 18-year-old daughter, Frime Chaye Rivke. The Grand Rabbi of Munkács (Mukacevo), Chaim Elazar Shapiro, father of the bride, makes a speech in Yiddish exhorting Jews in America to continue to keep Shabbes (to observe the sabbath day). The wedding party then enters the synagogue grounds, and the cantor sings blessings beneath the wedding canopy. The wedding concludes with festive klezmer…

    Wedding in Munkács
  • Zionist children in Munkács

    Film

    Large group of schoolchildren sing Hatikvah, the Zionist anthem.

    Zionist children in Munkács
  • School lesson in Munkács

    Film

    Children from the cheder (traditional religious school) in Munkacs recite their lesson.

    School lesson in Munkács
  • Book peddler in Munkács

    Film

    Exterior of house of study. Book peddler negotiates a sale with a young customer.

    Book peddler in Munkács
  • Weavers in Munkács

    Film

    Outdoor scene of Jewish weavers.

    Weavers in Munkács
  • Zionist dancing in Munkács

    Film

    Zionist youth sing while dancing the hora, a folk dance.

    Zionist dancing in Munkács
  • Liberation of Buchenwald

    Film

    The US army filmed the weak and emaciated survivors of the Buchenwald concentration camp in Germany to document Nazi crimes against humanity. This film was shot shortly after the liberation of the camp in April 1945.

    Liberation of Buchenwald
  • US Prosecutor Jackson

    Film

    In the summer of 1945, representatives of the victorious Allied nations—the United States, Great Britain, France, and the Soviet Union—met in London to discuss the formation of an International Military Tribunal. The questions on the table were daunting: how and where such a court would convene, what the criminal charges would be, and which perpetrators would be put on trial. US President Harry S. Truman issued an executive order designating Supreme Court Justice Robert H. Jackson to be the US…

    US Prosecutor Jackson
  • British Prosecutor Shawcross

    Film

    British Chief Prosecutor Sir Hartley Shawcross makes a final plea to the International Military Tribunal.

    British Prosecutor Shawcross
  • Defendants in the dock

    Film

    The International Military Tribunal defendants in the dock at Nuremberg.

    Defendants in the dock
  • "The Nazi Plan": Antisemitic Campaign

    Film

    [This video is silent] The film "The Nazi Plan" was shown as evidence at the International Military Tribunal in Nuremberg on December 11, 1945. It was compiled for the trial by Budd Schulberg and other US military personnel, under the supervision of Navy Commander James Donovan. The compilers used only German source material, including official newsreels. This footage is titled "Opening of the Official Anti-Semitic Campaign 1 April 1933."

    "The Nazi Plan": Antisemitic Campaign
  • "The Nazi Plan": Book Burning

    Film

    The film "The Nazi Plan" was shown as evidence at the International Military Tribunal in Nuremberg on December 11, 1945. It was compiled for the trial by Budd Schulberg and other US military personnel, under the supervision of Navy Commander James Donovan. The compilers used only German source material, including official newsreels. This footage is titled "The Burning of the Books, 10 May 1933."

    "The Nazi Plan": Book Burning
  • "The Nazi Plan": Seventh Party Congress, 1935

    Film

    The film "The Nazi Plan" was shown as evidence at the International Military Tribunal in Nuremberg on December 11, 1945. It was compiled for the trial by Budd Schulberg and other US military personnel, under the supervision of Navy Commander James Donovan. The compilers used only German source material, including official newsreels. In this footage titled "Seventh Party Congress 10–16 September 1935," Hermann Göring announces restrictive racial laws.

    "The Nazi Plan": Seventh Party Congress, 1935
  • "The Nazi Plan": Hitler's Inner Circle

    Film

    The film "The Nazi Plan" was shown as evidence at the International Military Tribunal in Nuremberg on December 11, 1945. It was compiled for the trial by Budd Schulberg and other US military personnel, under the supervision of Navy Commander James Donovan. The compilers used only German source material, including official newsreels. This footage titled "Conferences After Hitler's Escape from Bombing Plot, 20 July 1944" was used by Nuremberg prosecutors to show that the IMT defendants were among Hitler's…

    "The Nazi Plan": Hitler's Inner Circle
  • "Nuremberg: Its Lesson for Today"

    Film

    This footage comes from "Nuremberg, Its Lesson for Today" a 1947 documentary film produced by the US military's Documentary Film Unit, Information Services Division. The film, directed by Pare Lorentz and Stuart Schulberg, shows footage from the trial of Nazi war criminals by the International Military Tribunal. It also intermixes historical footage depicting the founding of the Nazi state, the unleashing of World War II, and Nazi crimes against humanity. The sentencing sequence shown here illustrates the…

    "Nuremberg: Its Lesson for Today"
  • Telford Taylor describes Justice Case defendants

    Film

    In the Justice Case of the Subsequent Nuremberg Proceedings, nine officials from the German Ministry of Justice and seven members of the Nazi-era People's and Special Courts were charged with “judicial murder and other atrocities, which they committed by destroying law and justice in Germany, and then utilizing the emptied forms of legal process for the persecution, enslavement and extermination on a large scale.” This footage shows US prosecutor Telford Taylor describing the defendants.

    Telford Taylor describes Justice Case defendants
  • Telford Taylor during Justice Case

    Film

    In the Justice Case of the Subsequent Nuremberg Proceedings, nine officials from the German Ministry of Justice and seven members of the Nazi-era People's and Special Courts were charged with “judicial murder and other atrocities, which they committed by destroying law and justice in Germany, and then utilizing the emptied forms of legal process for the persecution, enslavement and extermination on a large scale.” In this footage from the trial, US prosecutor Telford Taylor describes the nature…

    Telford Taylor during Justice Case
  • War damage in Nuremberg

    Film

    At the end of World War II, more than three-quarters of the city of Nuremberg, Germany, lay in rubble. This US Army Air Corps color footage shows some of the war damage in Nuremberg, which had been host in the 1920s and 1930s to massive and lavish rallies for the Nazi party.

    War damage in Nuremberg
  • Nazi Party rally in Nuremberg

    Film

    In the 1920s and 1930s, the German city of Nuremberg was host to massive and lavish rallies for the Nazi Party. This film footage, produced by Julien Bryan in 1937, shows saluting crowds in the Nuremberg stadium watching groups parade past Adolf Hitler.

    Nazi Party rally in Nuremberg
  • The case against defendant Hans Frank

    Film

    Lieutenant Colonel Baldwin of the US prosecution team presents the case against defendant Hans Frank at the Nuremberg trial. Baldwin refers to several of Frank's diary entries about the appropriation of scarce Polish grain for use as food in Germany.

    The case against defendant Hans Frank
  • Defendant Hans Frank testifies

    Film

    Defendant Hans Frank gives testimony to his defense lawyer during the Nuremberg trial about his leadership roles during the Third Reich.

    Defendant Hans Frank testifies
  • Cross examination of defendant Walter Funk

    Film

    US prosecutor Thomas Dodd cross examines defandant Walter Funk, former president of the German national bank. Dodd questions Funk about the possessions confiscated from concentration camp prisoners and elsewhere in German-occupied territories.

    Cross examination of defendant Walter Funk
  • Defendant Hermann Göring listens to trial testimony

    Film

    Defendant Hermann Göring, seated at left in the dock, listens as US Chief Prosecutor Robert Jackson interrogates witness Albert Kesselring about the Luftwaffe (German Air Force).

    Defendant Hermann Göring listens to trial testimony
  • Nazi tribute to German industrialist Gustav Krupp

    Film

    Hitler congratulates industrialist Gustav Krupp after presenting him with a Nazi party honor. After the ceremony, they toured a Krupp factory. This footage comes from the film "The Nazi Plan," produced and used by the United States in the prosecution at the Nuremberg trials.

    Nazi tribute to German industrialist Gustav Krupp
  • Trial testimony against Albert Speer

    Film

    Francois Boix, a concentration camp survivor, testifies about Albert Speer's visit to the Mauthausen concentration camp. Boix identifies Speer by pointing to him in the defendants' dock.

    Trial testimony against Albert Speer
  • Albert Speer sworn in at Nuremberg

    Film

    Defendant Albert Speer is sworn in at the International Military Tribunal.

    Albert Speer sworn in at Nuremberg

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