Listing of the 24 leading Nazi officials indicted at the International Military Tribunal at Nuremberg. Learn about the defendants and the charges against them.
The total number of prisoners to go through the Majdanek main camp has not yet been recalculated consistent with the latest research. The number of deaths is now estimated at between 80,000 and 110,000 for the main camp alone. Most succumbed to starvation, disease, exposure, and the effects of physical torture or back-breaking labor performed under threat of violence. The SS murdered some prisoners in the gas chambers, some upon arrival, and more after deeming them too weak to work. The total number of…
The Nuremberg Race Laws were two in a series of key decrees, legislative acts, and case law in...
Approximately 42,000 Jews were killed during Operation "Erntefest," which began at dawn on November
German ships at a Norwegian port. Norway, May 3, 1940.
A March 3, 1967, New York Times article about Simon Wiesenthal entitled, "Relentless Nazi-Hunter."
Regina upon graduation from Thomas Jefferson High School in Brooklyn, New York, February 3, 1949.
Regina and Victor celebrate their 50th wedding anniversary. New York City, May 3, 2003.
Group portrait of former Bielski partisans from Nowogrodek taken in the Foehrenwald displaced persons camp. Germany, April 3, 1948.
The defendants in the dock during the Justice Case, Case #3 of the Subsequent Nuremberg Proceedings. Nuremberg, Germany, 1947.
Witness Zivia Lubetkin Zuckerman testifies during the trial of Adolf Eichmann. Jerusalem, Israel. May 3, 1961.
View of prisoners' barracks soon after the liberation of the Dachau concentration camp. Dachau, Germany, May 3, 1945.
German troops arriving in Norway by ship prepare for landing during the German invasion of Norway. May 3, 1940.
German troops disembarking from a troop transport during the German invasion of Norway. May 3, 1940.
German troops and planes on an improvised airfield during the battle for Norway, May 3, 1940.
Hitler addresses German troops at the market square in Eger, during the German occupation of Czechoslovakia's Sudetenland region. October 3, 1938.
The 99th Infantry Division participated in major WWII campaigns and is recognized for liberating subcamps of the Dachau concentration camp in 1945.
At the beginning of WWII, people with mental or physical disabilities were targeted for murder in what the Nazis called the T-4, or "euthanasia," program.
Refugees aboard the St. Louis wait to hear whether Cuba will grant them entry. Off the coast of Havana, Cuba, June 3, 1939.
Aerial photograph showing the gas chambers and crematoria 2 and 3 at the Auschwitz-Birkenau (Auschwitz II) killing center. Auschwitz, Poland, August 25, 1944.
The Norwegian town of Elverum, near the Swedish border, burns after a German bombing mission during the invasion of Norway. Elverum, Norway, May 3, 1940.
This building in the town of Elverum, near Oslo, was damaged during a bombing raid following the German invasion of Norway. Elverum, Norway, May 3, 1940.
A group of German and Austrian Jewish refugee children arrives in New York on board the SS President Harding. New York, United States, June 3, 1939.
American Olympic runner Jesse Owens and other Olympic athletes compete in the twelfth heat of the first trial of the 100m dash. Berlin, Germany, August 3, 1936.
In the aftermath of the Munich agreement, which turned the Sudetenland area of Czechoslovakia over to Germany, German troops march into the town square of Friedland. October 3, 1938.
The program cover for "We Will Never Die" featured Arthur Szyk’s "Tears of Rage" artwork. The cover's original dimensions are: 12 1/16" x 9 1/16" x 3/16.
On April 1, 1933—less than 3 months after rising to power—the Nazis staged a nationwide boycott of Jewish businesses. The boycott signaled the start of the Nazi movement to exclude Jews from all aspects of German society.
On April 1, 1933—less than 3 months after rising to power—the Nazis staged a nationwide boycott of Jewish businesses. The boycott signaled the start of the Nazi movement to exclude Jews from all aspects of German so...
On April 1, 1933—less than 3 months after rising to power—the Nazis staged a nationwide boycott of Jewish businesses. The boycott signaled the start of the Nazi movement to exclude Jews from all aspects of German soci...
A pedestrian reads a notice announcing an upcoming public meeting, scheduled for Tuesday, December 3, to urge Americans to boycott the upcoming 1936 Berlin Olympics. New York, United States, 1935.
German women at work in the offices of the German Census Bureau. The board gives directions for tabulation: the center column instructs that number 3 is the indicator to be used for Jews. Germany, 1933.
Young German soldiers assist in the deportation of Jews from the Zychlin ghetto to the Chelmno killing center. The Nazis planned this deportation to fall on the Jewish holiday of Purim. Poland, March 3, 1942.
Passport issued to Lore Oppenheimer, a German Jew, with "J" for "Jude" stamped on the card. "Sara" was added to the names of all German Jewish women. Hildesheim, Germany, July 3, 1939.
Hitler during a triumphal tour of the Sudetenland following the Munich agreement of September 1938. The agreement ceded the largely German-speaking Sudeten region of Czechoslovakia to Germany. Eger, Czechoslovakia, October 3, 1938.
Jews were the main targets of Nazi genocide. Learn about other individuals from a broad range of backgrounds who were imprisoned in the Nazi camp system.
A newspaper advertisement for the Damenklub Violetta, a Berlin club frequented by lesbians, 1928. Before the Nazis came to power in 1933, lesbian communities and networks flourished in Germany.
Approximately 9.5 million Jews lived in Europe in 1933, the year Hitler came to power. This number represented 1.7% of Europe's total population and more than 60 percent of the world's Jewish population. By 1945, most European Jews—2 out of every 3—...
Approximately 9.5 million Jews lived in Europe in 1933, the year Hitler came to power. This number represented 1.7% of Europe's total population and more than 60 percent of the world's Jewish population. By 1945, most European Jews—2 out of every...
Portrait of David Kamchi, son of Masliach Kamchi, and his wife Sara. They lived at Gostivarska 3 in Bitola. This photograph was one of the individual and family portraits of members of the Jewish community of Bitola, Macedonia, used by Bulgarian occupation authorities to register the Jewish population prior to its deportation in March 1943.
Soviet prisoners of war wait for food in Stalag (prison camp) 8C. More than 3 million Soviet soldiers died in German custody, mostly from malnutrition and exposure. Zagan, Poland, February 1942. Second only to the Jews, Soviet prisoners of war were the largest group of victims of Nazi racial policy.
Wedding portrait of former Bielski partisan, Berl Kagan. Emden, Germany, April 3, 1948. Pictured from left to right are Ita Rubin (the bride), her mother, Sarah Rubin, and Berl Kagan. All three were passengers on the Exodus 1947.
Police search a messenger at the entrance to the building where Vorwaerts, a Social-Democratic Party newspaper, was published. The building was subsequently occupied during the suppression of the political left wing in Germany that was carried out in response to the Reichstag Fire. Berlin, Germany, March 3–4, 1933.
German troops marching into the Sudetenland stop at a former Czech frontier post. Nazi officials and Sudeten Germans salute the troops. The sign between the swastikas reads: "One People, One Reich, One Führer." Grottau, Czechoslovakia, October 2 or 3, 1938.
Between 1933 and 1945, Nazi Germany and its allies established more than 44,000 camps and other incarceration sites (including ghettos). The perpetrators used these locations for a range of purposes, including forced labor, detention of people deeme....
Dr. Mohamed Helmy and Frieda Szturmann helped save a Jewish family in the heart of Nazi Germany. Helmy was the first Arab recognized as Righteous Among the Nations.
Explore a timeline of key events in the history of the Lublin/Majdanek camp in German-occupied Poland.
Trials of top surviving German leaders for Nazi Germany’s crimes began in Nuremberg after World War II. Read about the Nuremberg trials.
Explore a timeline of key events in the history of Nazi Germany during 1938.
Explore a timeline of key events during 1939 in the history of Nazi Germany, World War II, and the Holocaust.
The Decree against Public Enemies was a key step in the process by which the Nazi leadership moved Germany from a democracy to a dictatorship.
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