By the process of "Aryanization" in Nazi Germany from 1933 to 1945, Jewish-owned businesses and property were transferred to non-Jews. Learn more.
Julius Streicher, an early Nazi Party members, was an organizer of the anti-Jewish boycott of April 1933 and publisher of the virulently antisemitic Der Stürmer.
Learn about the Holocaust in the Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia, including deportations to and from the Theresienstadt camp-ghetto.
Forced labor, often pointless, humiliating, without proper equipment, clothing, nourishment, or rest, was a core feature in the Nazi camp system from its beginnings in 1933.
The Nazis established killing centers in German-occupied Europe during WWII. They built these killing centers for the mass murder of human beings.
The "Final Solution," the Nazi plan to kill the Jews of Europe, was a core goal of Adolf Hitler and the culmination of German policy under Nazi rule.
The Nazis classified Jews as the priority “enemy.” However, they also targeted other groups they considered threats to the health, unity, and security of the German people. Learn more.
Learn about the voyages of the ships Orduña, Flandre, and Orinoco in May 1939, carrying Jewish refugees fleeing Nazi Germany and seeking safety in Cuba.
A variety of non-Jewish groups and individuals resisted the Nazi regime, both in Germany and in German-occupied territory. Learn more.
Roma (Gypsies) were persecuted in Europe before and during World War II. This history is well documented in archives throughout Europe and the United States. Learn more.
The Nazi regime's extensive camp system included concentration camps, forced-labor camps, prisoner-of-war camps, transit camps, and killing centers.
Learn about Fürstengrube subcamp of Auschwitz, including its establishment, administration, prisoner population, and forced labor and conditions in the camp.
Learn about the establishment and history of the Dachau subcamp München-Schwabing, and the role of Eleonore Baur (also known as Schwester Pia or Sister Pia).
Key dates in the history of the SS (Schutzstaffel; Protection Squadrons), charged with the leadership of the “Final Solution,” the murder of European Jews.
Key dates in the life of Reinhard Heydrich, chief of the Reich Security Main Office, the SS and police agency most directly concerned with implementing Final Solution.
From July 1941-May 1944, the SS camp at Trawniki had several purposes. It is best known as the training site for auxiliary police guards used in Nazi killing centers. Learn more.
The SS (Schutzstaffel) was the elite guard of the Nazi regime and a virtual state within the Third Reich.
The Waffen-SS was the military branch of the SS in Nazi Germany. During World War II, they took part in most military campaigns.
In January 1944, FDR established the War Refugee Board which was charged with “immediate rescue and relief of the Jews of Europe and other victims of enemy persecution.”
Leni Riefenstahl was a German dancer, actress, and film director best known for her imposing propaganda films in support of the National Socialist (Nazi) Party.
Charged with managing the mass deportation of Jews to ghettos and killing centers, Adolf Eichmann was a key figure in the "Final Solution."
Adolf Eichmann was a key figure in implementing the “Final Solution,” the Nazi plan to kill Europe's Jews. Learn more through key dates and events.
The trauma of WWI would profoundly shape the attitudes and actions of leaders and ordinary people during the Holocaust. Learn more about the aftermath of the conflict.
Learn about Adolf Hitler's experiences during World War I and his ideological development after the war.
Karl Höcker created a personal album of photographs chronicling SS officers’ activities at Auschwitz. Learn about this chilling collection.
Learn about photographs contained in Karl Höcker’s album depicting official visits, ceremonies, and the social activities of the Auschwitz camp staff.
Karl Höcker’s album shows SS officers at events ranging from ceremonies to social gatherings, in stark contrast to other photographs from Auschwitz. Learn more.
Karl Höcker’s album shows him in close contact to the main perpetrators at Auschwitz-Birkenau. Learn about his 1963 trial and the significance of his album.
Ghettos separating Jews from the rest of the population were part of the Nazi plan to destroy Europe's Jews. Learn about three types of ghettos: closed, open, and destruction.
Iranian diplomat Abdol Hossein Sardari gave critical assistance to Iranian Jews in occupied France (1940-1944) to protect them from Nazi persecution.
The swastika is an ancient symbol that was in use in many different cultures for many years before Adolf Hitler made it the centerpiece of the Nazi flag.
German Jews trying to immigrate to the US in the late 1930s met extreme bureaucratic hurdles, including documentation that was often virtually impossible to obtain.
Explore a timeline of key events during the history of the Krakow ghetto in German-occupied Poland.
Explore key dates in the history of the Theresienstadt camp/ghetto, which served multiple purposes during its existence from 1941-45.
Despite terrible living conditions and the constant threat of deportation, there was a highly developed cultural life in the Theresienstadt camp-ghetto. Learn more.
The "Nacht und Nebel" decree allowed German authorities to capture without trace ("by night and fog") and try individuals alleged to be "endangering German security."
In 1942, German authorities began to deport German and Austrian Jews to Theresienstadt. Learn about the administration of the camp-ghetto and Jews’ experiences.
Learn about the “Tehran Children,” a group of Polish-Jewish refugees. In 1942, they were resettled from the Soviet Union to Palestine via Iran.
Explore a timeline of key events in Nazi Germany during 1933.
Explore a timeline of key events in Nazi Germany during 1934.
Explore a timeline of key events in Nazi Germany during 1935.
Learn about the establishment of the Theresienstadt camp/ghetto, which served multiple purposes from 1941-45 and had an important propaganda function for the Germans.
Explore a timeline of the history of the Bergen-Belsen camp in the Nazi camp system. Initially a POW camp, it became a concentration camp in 1943.
In Nazi Germany, a chief role of culture was to disseminate the Nazi worldview. Arts and cultural organizations were to be synchronized with Nazi ideology and policy.
Under the protection of the Bielski partisan group, founded by brothers Tuvia, Asael, and Zus, over 1,200 Jews survived after fleeing into forests in western Belarus.
Read a detailed timeline of the Holocaust and World War II. Learn about key dates and events from 1933-45 as Nazi antisemitic policies became more radical.
Hitler's political opponents were the first victims of systematic Nazi persecution. They were incarcerated without trial and under conditions of great cruelty.
The Nazis and their coalition partners used the burning of the Reichstag on February 27, 1933, as the pretext for emergency legislation that ultimately paved the way for Nazi dictatorship.
World War II lasted from 1939 to 1945, when the Allies defeated the Axis powers. Learn about key invasions and events during WWII, also known as the Second World War.
Throughout the 1930s and 40s, Nazi Germany invaded much of Eastern and Western Europe. Learn more about German rule in occupied territories.
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